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Yevamos 16

YEVAMOS 16 (7 Teves) - Dedicated by Yaakov Wollner and family, of Baltimore, Maryland, in memory of Yitzchok Yisroel Daniel.

1) [line 6] V'EINAV KAMU - (lit. his eyes stopped seeing) he was blind
2) [line 30] BECHOR SATAN HU - (lit. he is the firstborn of Satan) (a) he is a sharp, unrelenting scholar who acts according to his rulings, even against the majority opinion (RASHI); (b) he comes from a place called Bechor Satan or Bor Satan (TOSFOS YESHANIM; compare Kidushin 72a, Birasa d'Satya); (c) According to the Girsa BECHOR SHANUN or BACHUR SHANUN - he is a sharp Talmid Chacham or a sharp young scholar (RASHI to the Ein Yakov); (d) some change the Girsa to BECHOR SHOTEH - a term used for the firstborn of the mother, but not of the father (see TANA D'VEI ELIYAHU ZUTA 1, cited in YOSEF DA'AS)

3) [line 31] SHE'LO YEKAPE'ACH ESCHEM B'HALACHOS - that he not overwhelm you (lit. cut off your feet) with Halachos; i.e. show you that he understands them in greater depth than you (RASHI Kidushin 52b DH l'Kapecheni)

4) [line 33] AL MEDOCHAH ZO YASHAV - on this [inverted] mortar sat...
5) [line 35] KARDUYIN - natives of Cordyne in Kurdistan, the area in Turkey where Mount Ararat stands (TARGUM ONKELOS). Mount Ararat is located near Russia and Iran, some 200 miles southeast of the Black Sea, near the Murat River, which is one of the sources of the Euphrates River.

6) [line 35] TARMODIM - the people of Tarmod (or Tadmor = Palmyra, an oasis in the Syrian desert)

7) [line 37] AKSHI LEI V'UKMEI - he (Yonasan ben Harkinas) asked him (Rebbi Akiva) questions until he was outwitted

8) [line 38] LO HIGA'TA L'RO'EI BAKAR - you have not reached the level of a cattleman

9) [line 40] KEDUSHAH RISHONAH KIDSHAH L'SHA'ATAH V'LO KIDSHAH L'ASID LAVO - The first Sanctification brought about sanctity at that time only, and not after the destruction
(a) Chazal refer to three distinct sanctities when they discuss whether or not Kedushah Rishonah Kidshah l'Sha'atah v'Kidshah l'Asid Lavo: the sanctity of the Beis ha'Mik
(b) The Beis ha'Mikdash hdash; the sanctity of Yerushalayim; and the sanctity of Eretz Yisrael.ad to be sanctified in order for the sacrifices to be offered there. Similarly, Yerushalayim had to be sanctified in order for Kodshim Kalim and Ma'aser Sheni to be eaten there. Shlomo ha'Melech sanctified the Beis ha'Mikdash and Yerushalayim. According to one opinion, their Kedushah remained even after the Babylonians and Romans destroyed the Beis ha'Mikdash and Yerushalayim. There is a Tana who argues and maintains that when the Babylonians conquered Eretz Yisrael, this Kedushah ceased and when Ezra returned to Israel, he sanctified it once again.
(c) Eretz Yisrael had to be sanctified in order for the Mitzvos ha'Teluyos ba'Aretz, such as Terumos and Ma'asros, to be practiced. Yehoshua sanctified Eretz Yisrael through conquest. According to one opinion, the Kedushah of the land remained even after the Babylonians conquered Eretz Yisrael and laid waste to the land. Another Tana (and Chagai ha'Navi of our Gemara) argues and maintains that when the Babylonians conquered Eretz Yisrael, this Kedushah ceased and the Mitzvos ha'Teluyos ba'Aretz no longer applied. When Ezra returned to Israel, he sanctified it once again - see Insights to Megilah 10a and to Temurah 21a.

10) [line 43] KARTUYIM - natives of Kartu (in the mountains of Media)
11) [line 48] KESAMIM - literally "stains". Chazal declared a Jewish woman Teme'ah if she found certain colored stains on her undergarments

12) [line 48] REKEM - Petra, in Jordan (JOSEPHUS, TEVU'OS HA'ARETZ). Rekem is the Biblical Kadesh (see TARGUM ONKELOS to Bereishis 14:7, 16:14, 20:1)


13) [line 14] KASHTUYEI - archers
14) [line 19] MI KASHISH KULEI HAI - was he so old?
15a) [line 24] HUMANYA - Humania, a town in Bavel, whose inhabitants were Greek and hostile to the Jews of Pum Nahara
b) [line 24] PUM NAHARA - the name of a place in Bavel, at the mouth of a river (Pum = mouth; Nahara = river), whose inhabitants were impoverished Jews

(a) When there is a doubt as to the source of a certain item, i.e. from where it comes or to which group it belongs, the Torah informs us that we may resolve the doubt according to certain set rules. One of these rules is "Haloch Achar ha'Rov" (assume that an item comes from the largest group). For instance, if a piece of meat is found lying on the street (or in the hands of a non-Jew in the street), and most of the meat in the town is Kosher, it can be safely assumed that the meat is kosher. The source for Haloch Achar ha'Rov is the verse, "Acharei Rabim l'Hatos" (Shemos 23:2, Chulin 11a).
(b) If, however, the nature of the item is in doubt while it is still "in its place," or Kavu'a, (i.e. it was not separated from the other items of its kind), we do not follow the Rov. Instead, we remain in doubt as to the status of the item. For instance, if a person buys meat and then forgets whether he bought it at a Kosher or non-Kosher store. We cannot assume that the meat is Kosher just because most of the stores in the town are Kosher, since we are questioning its status while it is still in its proper place (= the store) before it was separated from the other pieces of meat in the store.

17) [line 26] B'DUCHTA D'KEVI'I - a place where the Ten Tribes are known to live
18) [last line] "[VA'YEGEL MELECH ASHUR ES YISRA'EL ASHURAH;] VA'YANCHEM BA'CHELACH UV'CHAVOR NEHAR GOZAN V'AREI MADAI." - "[The king of Assyria exiled Yisrael to Assyria;] and placed them in Chelach and in Chavor, which are on the Gozan River, and in the cities of Media." (Melachim II 18:11)

19) [last line] CHILAZON - Chalvan (Holvan), in Assyria

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