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Yevamos 4

YEVAMOS 3 & 4 - dedicated by Dr. Eli Turkel (of Raanana) and family; may they be blessed with much Nachas from their children and grandchildren.

1) [line 1] "LO SILBASH SHA'ATNEZ; [TZEMER U'FISHTIM YACHDAV.]" - "You shall not wear Sha'atnez (combined fibers); [wool and linen together.]" (Devarim 22:11)

2) [line 1] SHA'ATNEZ
(a) Sha'atnez is a mixture of wool and linen which is prohibited, as the Torah states in Devarim 22:11. Chazal teach that the word "Sha'atnez" is made up of three smaller words -- "Shu'a" (combed), "Tavi" (spun) and "Noz."
(b) The Rishonim disagree over the translation of the word "Noz":

1. RASHI (Nidah 61b and Horayos 11a DH Noz) and the RASH (Mishnayos Kil'ayim 9:8) learn that Noz means *woven together* (the wool and linen are woven together in a garment).
2. TOSFOS (Nidah 61b DH Shua Tavi v'Noz) disagrees with Rashi's explanation. We learn that the prohibition of Sha'atnez applies only when the wool and linen are woven together from the word "Yachdav" in the verse. If so, Noz does not mean "woven together." Rather, Noz means that the threads must be *twisted* or wound.
(c) The Rishonim disagree about how the wool and linen must be joined in order to transgress the Torah prohibition of Kil'ayim:
1. RASHI (ibid.) holds that the wool and linen must be combed, spun, *and* woven together. That is, the strands of wool must be combed together, spun together, and then woven together with the linen in order to transgress the prohibition of Sha'atnez. If the strands of wool are combed or spun separately from the strands of linen, even though they are later woven into a garment together, the Torah prohibition of Sha'atnez has not been transgressed.
2. TOSFOS (ibid.) learns that one transgresses the Torah prohibition if the wool and linen are combed, spun, and twisted by themselves, and are then joined together by two stitches. The RASH (ibid.) agrees with Tosfos, and rules that if the wool and linen are combed and spun separately and then joined, the prohibition of Sha'atnez has been transgressed. (However he does not require that the threads be twisted, see b:1.)
3) [line 1] "GEDILIM TA'ASEH LACH; [AL ARBA KANFOS KESUSCHA ASHER TECHASEH BAH.]" - "You shall make for yourselves twisted threads (Tzitzis); [on the four corners of the your garment with which you cover yourself.]" (Devarim 22:12)

4) [line 2] SEMUCHIM MIN HA'TORAH MINAYIN? - from where in the Torah do we know that we may learn something from the fact that two Parshiyos or verses are stated next to each other?

5) [line 3] "SEMUCHIM LA'AD L'OLAM, ASUYIM BE'EMES V'YASHAR." - "[They stand fast,] supported for ever and ever, and are done in truth and uprightness." (Tehilim 111:8) - The word "Semuchim," ("supported"), also means "adjacent."

6) [line 6] MUKEH SHECHIN - a person afflicted with boils
7) [line 6] SHE'EIN CHOSMIN OSAH - that we do not seal her mouth, i.e. we listen to and accept her claims against having him perform Yibum (RASHI); alt., that we do not intimidate her with the words, "Do not say, 'I do not want him.'" (RASHI to Makos 23a)

8) [line 9] MISHNEH TORAH - the Book of Devarim
9) [line 12] "MECHASHEIFAH LO SECHAYEH." - "You shall not let a witch live." (Shemos 22:17)

10) [line 14] SAMCHO INYAN LO - the Torah wrote the subject of witches next to the subject of bestiality

11a) [line 17] OV
The Gemara (Sanhedrin 65b) defines a Ba'al Ov as someone who attempts to communicate with the dead by bringing up a deceased person through sorcery and having it speak. To get it to speak, the diviner would put a certain bone in his armpit and flap his arms or move around in various ways.

b) [line 17] YID'ONI
This form of witchcraft was accomplished by placing a bone from the Yidu'a or Adnei ha'Sadeh creature (Kil'ayim 8:5) in the mouth of the diviner in order to communicate with the dead.

12) [line 25] KANAF SHE'RA'AH AVIV - (lit. the cloak-border that his father has seen) a women with whom his father had relations

13) [line 26] ME'ILAVEI D'KERA - from what is written before that verse (in the previous verse)

*14*) [line 32] BI'SHNEI LAVIN - (actually, there will be three, and not just two, negative prohibitions: 1. Kenaf Aviv (i.e. the Pasuk the Gemara here cites); 2. the wife of his father's brother; 3. the prohibition of marrying a Shomeres Yavam (i.e. a Yevamah) before she has Yibum.)

15) [line 33] L'AFNUEYEI (MUFNEH - a word is free (i.e. it is not necessary for understanding the simple meaning of the verse or for any other Derashah, so it may be used to infer a Gezerah Shavah)
(a) If two similar words in the Torah are free of any Derashah, they may be used unconditionally for the inference of a Gezerah Shavah between the two topics.
(b) If only one of the words is free, there is a Machlokes whether they may be used unconditionally for the inference of a Gezerah Shavah, or if they can only be used for a Gezerah Shavah if we have no logical argument against learning the Gezerah Shavah (Lemedin u'Meshivin).
(c) If both words are used for another Derashah, there is a Machlokes whether they can only be used for a Gezerah Shavah if we have no logical argument not to learn the Gezerah Shavah, or if they cannot be used at all for a Gezerah Shavah.


16) [line 9] HA'ALA'AH - draping the garment over one's shoulders, with no intention of being warmed by the garment

*17*) [line 25] V'TANA D'VEI REBBI YISHMAEL, TA'AMA D'CHASAV RACHMANA TZEMER U'FISHTIM - that is, does'nt Tava d'Vei Rebbi Yishmael have another source that Aseh is Docheh Lo Sa'aseh?

18) [line 31] AMRA - wool
19) [line 32] MID'SHESH KISNA, TECHELES AMRA HU - since the word "Shesh" that is mentioned with regard to Bigdei Kehunah means flax, the word Techeles must mean [green or blue (see Insights to Berachos 57:3)] wool (because only these two types of fabric were permitted to be used)

*20*) [line 36] SHE'AR MININ B'MINAN POTRIN - that is, since one may use Techeles of Pishtan for a garment of Pishtan, it cannot be proven that Aseh is Docheh Lo Sa'aseh (without resorting to the Semuchin that the Gemara brought earlier).

21) [line 34] MIN KANAF - the Tzitzis should be made from the same material as the corner of the garment

22) [line 35] B'MINAN - in a garment of the same material

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