ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem
Previous dafTa'anis 29
TA'ANIS 27, 28, 29, 30 - Ari Kornfeld has generously sponsored the Dafyomi
publications for these Dafim for the benefit of Klal Yisrael
(a) Given that Yisrael left Har Sinai on the twentieth of Sivan of the second
year, they grumbled about the journey - on the twentieth of Sivan, the
twenty-first and the twenty-second.
Hashem's response to their crocodile tears that night - was the famous saying
'You cried for nothing, I will fix a night of (real) crying for all
(b) They ate the quails for a month - from the twenty-third of Iyar until the
twenty-second of Sivan (twenty-nine days).
(c) The following day, Miriam spoke Lashon ha'Ra about Moshe, and was sent
out of the camp for seven days, following which Moshe sent the spies. On the
(d) If the spies left on the twenty-ninth of Sivan and returned on the eve of
Tish'ah be'Av, that would make a total of *thirty-nine* days (two days of
Sivan, twenty-nine of Tamuz - which is generally a short month - and eight of
Av), not *forty*, as the Torah specifically writes. The Pasuk however, writes
"Kara Alai Mo'ed", implying that they made Tamuz a full month (because Rosh
Chodesh is included in the Parshah of Mo'ados in Emor), in order that the
crying and the punishment should take place on the *ninth* of Av, rather that
on the tenth (possibly because the number ten has connotations of sanctity,
and therefore the number nine, of having fallen short). Consequently, the
spies were indeed away for forty days, as the Torah records.
- ... twenty-third of Sivan.
- ... twenty-ninth, Moshe sent the spies. (Tosfos has a different way of reckoning the dates, as the Hagahos Bach point out.)
(a) Nevuzradan the chief butcher destroyed the Beis-Hamikdash - in the
nineteenth year of Nevuchadnetzar's reign.
(b) We reconcile the Pasuk in Melachim which gives the date of the first
Churban as having taken place on the *seventh* of Av, with the Pasuk in
Yirmiyah, which gives it as the *tenth* - like this: The enemy entered the
Beis-Hamikdash on the seventh of Av. They proceeded to eat and to wreak havoc
for three days. Then at sunsest of the ninth they set fire to it, and it
burnt until the end of the tenth of Av.
(c) Rebbi Yochanan declared that, had *he* had a say in the matter, he would
have fixed the day of mourning on the *tenth* (when most of the conflagration
occurred), and not on the *ninth*. Chazal fix it on the *ninth* however -
because it is the first moment of punishment which is the most painful.
(d) We know that the *second* Beis-Hamikdash was also destroyed on the ninth
of Av - from the principle 'Megalgelin ... (ve)'Chov Al-yedei Chayav' (that
Hashem brings about good through a good person or day, and evil through an
evil person or day - referring in this case, to an evil day).
(a) The Churban occurred on a Motza'ei Shabbos and on a Motza'ei Sh'mitah.
(b) It took place during the Mishmar of Yehoyariv, whilst the Levi'im were
singing the Shir. The fact that they were singing the Shir for Wednesday, and
not that of Motza'ei Shabbos - was 'min ha'Shamayim', because the last words
of that Shirah comprised an appropriate lamentation for the occasion (as we
shall now see).
(c) The Churban occurred when they had just sung "u've'Ra'asam Yatzmisem"
(but not the last three words "Yatzmisem Hashem Elokeinu - presumably because
if they had, it would have signified total destruction, without any hope of
(d) We know that Beitar was also destroyed on Tish'ah-be'Av - from tradition.
(a) The fifth thing that took place on Tish'ah-be'Av was Turnusrufus' plowing
up of Yerushalayim. On the same day, they sent for Raban Gamliel to be
(b) When the Roman 'Master' announced in the Beis-Hamedrash that the man with
the long nose is wanted - he was referring to Raban Gamliel, who was very
tall and good-looking, or because he was the leader of the generation (and
the nose represents spirituality, because Hashem breathed the Neshamah into
Adam through his nostrils - which explains why the sense of smell is the most
spiritual [Rei'ach - Ruchniyus]).
(c) When he visited Raban Gamliel in hiding, Raban Gamliel swore that he
would 'bring him to Olam ha'Ba' if he saved him from death. - so he
committed suicide by jumping off the roof. Raban Gamliel was therefore
acquitted, due an understanding that existed in those days that, if one of
the leaders of a plot on someone's life died, it was a sign from heaven that
they must desist.
(d) A heavenly voice was heard to announce that that 'Master' was prepared to
go immediately to Olam ha'Ba.
(a) When the groups of young Kohanim saw that the Churban was imminent - they
took the keys of the Beis-Hamikdash up onto the roof, and threw them up into
the air. 'Since we are no longer worthy of guarding Your House, we are
handing the keys back to You'.
1. A Hand came and took the keys. (Note: Some say that that is 'the Hand that
is stretched against Your Mikdash' that is referred to in the Musaf Amidah of
(c) Yeshayah lamented the death of the Kohanim - Hashem, the Beis Hamikdash
that was now desolate.
2. The young Kohanim - then jumped into the fire.
(a) Rav Yehudah the son of Shmuel bar Shilas quotes Rav as saying - that,
just as when Av enters, one minimizes one's Simchah - so too, when Adar
enters, one maximizes them.
(b) Consequently - someone who has litigation with a Nochri, should avoid
having it during the month of Av on the one hand, and should make a point of
having it in Adar on the other.
(c) He also quoted Rav as saying that ...
1. ... there was great hope for the exiles in Bavel - on account of the date-
palms and linen clothes that were available there.
2. ... when Yitzchak referred to the smell of Ya'akov (when he came to him
for the B'rachos) 'like the smell of a field which Hashem has blessed' - he
was referring to an apple-field (which Tosfos explains to mean an Esrog-
(a) Our Mishnah forbids washing clothes during the week of Tish'ah-be'Av. Rav
Nachman restricts this to when one washes the garment with the intention of
wearing it. Rav Sheishes proves that it is forbidden in any event - because
the laundries of Bei Rav would close down completely during this period.
(b) Rav Sheishes' reason - is because it looks as if one is taking one's mind
off the mourning for the Beis-Hamikdash.
(c) The Beraisa permits washing clothes on Thursday (during the week of
Tish'ah be'Av) in honor of Shabbos. Since he is washing it in honor of
Shabbos, he is clearly not going to wear it immediately. In any case - we can
infer from there that, on any other day of the week, it would be forbidden
(even though he intends to leave the clothes for after Tish'ah-be'Av (a
Kashya on Rav Nachman).
(a) To answer the above Kashya we establish the Beraisa when he only has one
shirt - which Rav Asi Amar Rebbi Yochanan permits to be washed on Chol
ha'Mo'ed (even if he washed it before Yom-Tov).
(b) The Tana calls it in honor of Shabbos - because we are speaking when
Tish'ah be'Av falls on Friday. Consequently, if he does not wash the shirt
on Thursday, he will not be able to wash it on Friday (which is Tish'ah
be'Av), and he will not have a clean shirt for Shabbos.
(c) Although Rebbi Elazar also agrees with Rav Nachman (who permits washing
clothes during the week of Tish'ah-be'Av, that one does not intend to wear
until after Tish'ah-be'Av) - the Halachah cannot be like Rav Nachman, because
he is disproved from a Beraisa (which specifically forbids washing clothes
during the nine days, even if it is to leave for after Tish'ah be'Av).
(d) The Beraisa also says that ...
1. ... ironing (woolen) clothes in Bavel (see Rabeinu Chananel) is like
washing them. Consequently, since ironing is more effective than washing, we
can infer - that washing woolen clothes in Bavel is permitted during the nine
2. ... ironing linen clothes is permitted (though subsequently wearing them
is not, as we shall now see).
(a) Rebbi Yochanan is quoted as saying that ironed linen clothes may not be
worn during the week of Tish'ah-be'Av. Shmuel takes this literally,
forbidding wearing them until Shabbos, irrespective of when Tish'ah be'Av
falls. Rav however, restricts Rebbi Yochanan's prohibition to the days prior
to Tish'ah be'Av, but not to the days between Tish'ah be'Av and Shabbos.
(b) The Beraisa explicitly permits washing clothes between Tish'ah be'Av and
Shabbos - so how can Shmuel forbid wearing clothes that were washed
beforehand, during that time?
(c) Shmuel answers that it is a Machlokes Tana'im - and he holds like Raban
Shimon ben Gamliel (as we shall soon see).
(a) The Beraisa (from which we asked on Shmuel) permits someone who did not
wash his clothes on Thursday (when Tish'ah be'Av falls on Friday) to do so on
Friday afternoon (after Minchah-time) in honor of Shabbos.
(b) Abaye (or Rav Acha bar Ya'akov) - cursed anyone who washes clothes on
Tish'ah-be'Av (in honor of Shabbos notwithstanding).
(c) In the same Beraisa, Rebbi Yossi holds that on whatever day of the week
Tish'ah-be'Av falls, one calls up three people to the Torah, the last of
which reads the Haftarah. According to the Tana Kama - one only calls up
three people on Monday and Thursday, but on the other days of the week, only
*one* person is called up, and *he* reads the Haftarah.
(a) There are no restrictions with regard to eating Shalosh Se'udos on
Shabbos on which either Erev Tish'ah-be'Av or Tish'ah-be'Av falls. In fact -
one is permitted to eat 'ki'Se'udas Shlomoh be'Sha'ato'.
Rava rules like Raban Shimon ben Gamliel and like Rebbi Meir, both le'Kula.
Had he ruled ...
(b) 'Se'udas Shlomoh *be'Sha'ato*' - refers to the time that Shlomoh ruled,
because for a time during his reign, he was deposed by Ashmodai (and some
even say that he was not re-instated).
(c) We already mentioned the opinion of Raban Shimon ben Gamliel, who forbids
washing clothes during the entire week of Tish'ah be'Av (even between Tish'ah
be'Av and Shabbos). Rebbi Meir forbids having a haircut and washing clothes
from Rosh Chodesh until Tish'ah-be'Av. Rebbi Yehudah, the most stringent of
all - forbids the entire month of Av.
(d) Rebbi Yochanan points out that each of the three Tana'im learns his
opinion from the same Pasuk in Hoshei'a "ve'Hishbati Kol Mesosah, Chagah,
Chodshah ve'Shabatah". The source according to ...
- ... Rebbi Meir - is "Chagah".
- ... Rebbi Yehudah - "Chodshah".
- ... Raban Shimon ben Gamliel - "Shabatah".
1. ... like Rebbi Meir only - we would have thought that the prohibition
begins from Rosh Chodesh.
2. ... like Raban Shimon ben Gamliel only - we would have thought that the
prohibition extends even to between Tish'ah be'Av and Shabbos (like Shmuel).