ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem
Previous dafTa'anis 17
TA'ANIS 17, 18, 19 - Ari Kornfeld has generously sponsored the Dafyomi
publications for these Dafim for the benefit of Klal Yisrael
(a) Earlier in the Sugya, we connected the Berachah of 'Shomei'a Tze'akah'
with Shmuel, and that of 'Shomei'a Tefilah', with Eliyahu. Others reverse
the two Berachos: they connect Tefilah with Shmuel, and Tze'akah with
Eliyahu. The latter presents a problem - because we do not find a Lashon of
Tze'akah by Eliyahu (only of Tefilah, in Melachim - "Aneini Hashem Aneini"),
but not the former, where both the Lashon of Tefilah and that of Tze'akah
(b) To resolve the problem - we explain the Pasuk "Aneini Hashem Aneini" to
be a Lashon of Tze'akah (and not Tefilah, as we initially thought).
(a) Despite the fact that David and Shlomoh lived long before Yonah, the
Tana nevertheless places their Berachah last - in order to conclude with the
Berachah on Eretz Yisrael (and David and Shlomoh prayed for Eretz Yisrael -
or because they established the Beis-Hamikdash, which is the most important
institution in Eretz Yisrael).
(b) 'Baruch ... Mashpil ha'Ramim' - is the text that ended the last of the
six Berachos according to Sumchus (and not 'Baruch ... Merachem al
(a) According to the Chachamim, a Kohen is forbidden to drink wine nowadays
(except for during a meal - see Tosfos DH 've'Yodei'a') ...
1. ... on that day only - if he knows a. to which Mishmeres he belongs; b.
to which Beis-Av he belongs, and c. that his Beis-Av was in fact, fixed to
serve in the Beis-Hamikdash.
(b) The Tana speaks about the Kohen knowing that his Beis-Av was fixed -
because some Batei-Av were *not*, due to the fact that they were
disqualified (e.g. through a forbidden marriage).
2. ... for the whole week - if he knows to which Mishmeres he belongs (but
not to which Beis-Av), provided he also knows that his Beis-Av was in fact,
fixed to serve in the Beis-Hamikdash
3. ... for the entire year - if he knows for a fact that his Beis-Av was
fixed to serve in the Beis-Hamikdash, but he does not know to which
Mishmeres he belongs.
(c) When Rebbi says ...
1. ... 'Omer Ani, Asur Lishtos Yayin Le'olam' - he means that according to
the Chachamim, every Kohen should be forbidden to drink wine at all (even if
he does know to which Mishmeres and to which Beis-Av he belongs), in case
the Beis-Hamikdash is built suddenly, and he is called upon to serve with
all the other available Kohanim at its inauguration (whether it is their
turn or not).
(d) Abaye says that seeing as the Kohanim *do* drink wine nowadays, it must
be because they hold like Rebbi.
2. ... 'Takanaso Kalkalaso' - he means 'Kalkalaso Takanaso' (the Kilkul of
the Beis-Hamikdash not having been built for so long, is its Tikun); in
other words, we no longer issue stringent rulings on the basis of the far-
fetched likelihood that it will be built just today.
(a) The Kohanim are forbidden to have a haircut or to wash their clothes
during their week of Avodah - in order to ensure that they do so before they
begin serving in the Beis-Hamikdash (similar to the decree issued by Chazal
on Chol Hamo'ed).
(b) We learn from the Pasuk "Melech be'Yofyo Techezenah Einecha" - that a
king always had to look smart (so he had to have a haircut every day).
(c) The Kohen Gadol was obligated to have a haircut every Friday - so that
the Mishmar of Kohanim who began serving the following day should at the
outset, see him looking smart.
(a) We learn that 'S'tam Nezirus Sh'loshim Yom' - from the Pasuk in Naso
"Kadosh Yihyeh ... " (and the numerical value of "Yihyeh" is thirty).
(b) We then learn from the 'Gezeirah-Shavah' "Pera" (in Yechezkel) from
"Pera" (in Naso) - that (just like a Nazir is forbidden to cut his 'Pera',
so too, may) a Kohen not leave a hair-growth of more than thirty days.
(c) We learn from the fact that the Navi writes "u'Fera Lo Yeshaleichu" (and
not "Lo Yeshaleichu Pera") - that a Kohen does not need to cut his hair by
the twenty-ninth day (see Tosfos DH 'Lo' and note 2 of ha'Rav Renshburg).
(a) Initially, we explain why nowadays, the Kohanim are not forbidden to
have a hair-cut - just like they are not forbidden to drink wine.
(b) But that is according to Rebbi. So we explain that even according to the
Rabbanan, the Kohanim are permitted to have a hair-cut, in spite of the fact
that they are forbidden to drink wine - because in the event of the Beis-
Hamikdash being re-built, it does not take long to have a haircut before
going to serve there.
(c) They cannot however, drink wine and, should the Beis Hamikdash be built,
walk one Mil (eighteen minutes) or sleep for a very short period of time (to
shake off the drunkenness) - because of Rav Nachman quoting Rabah bar Avuha,
who said that that is only effective for someone who drank up to a Revi'is
of wine, but that, if one drank more than that, a little sleep or a short
walk would cause him to become even more drunk than before.
(d) According to Rav Ashi, the reason that Chazal forbade Kohanim to drink
wine nowadays but not to have a haircut - is because, whereas a Kohen who
serves after drinking wine, desecrates the Avodah, a Kohen who serves with
long hair does not.
(a) The Torah specifically writes that a Kohen who drinks wine and then
performs the Avodah is Chayav Misah. The Tana of the Beraisa knows that the
same applies to a Kohen who does the Avodah with more than a thirty day
growth of hair - because the Pasuk in Yechezkel compares the two, so that,
just as the former is Chayav Misah, so is the latter.
To answer the previous Kashya we assume that (Chazal had a tradition that)
the Halachah le'Moshe mi'Sinai was handed to Moshe only with regard to the
Chiyuv Misah, but not with regard to desecrating the Avodah (some texts do
not have this answer, and remain with a Kashya, like the Gemara in Sanhedrin
does. See also Tosfos Sanhedrin 22b. DH 'Ela').
(b) The Derashah from Yechezkel is only an Asmachta (a hint to what we
already know). The real source however, is 'Halachah le'Moshe mi'Sinai'.
(c) As a precedent, we have the 'Hekesh' from another Pasuk in Yechezkel
"Kol Ben Neichar Areil Leiv ve'Areil Basar Lo Yavo el Mikdashi" - from which
we learn that a Kohen who is an Areil (who did not have the B'ris Milah) may
not serve in the Beis-Hamikdash (which is really a Halachah le'Moshe
mi'Sinai), in the same way as one who is an Areil Leiv (who serves idols).
(d) This presents Rav Ashi (who said earlier - in 6d. - that, whereas a
Kohen who serves after drinking wine desecrates the Avodah, a Kohen who
serves with long hair does not) with a Kashya - because the same Hekesh
which teaches us that a Kohen is Chayav Misah for performing the Avodah with
long hair, should also teach us that he desecrates the Avodah (in which
case, there will be no reason to permit a Kohen to have a hair-cut nowadays,
any more than to drink wine)?
(a) Chazal fixed a Yom-Tov (on which it is forbidden even to make a eulogy)
from the *first* of Nisan until the *eighth*, because the Tamid was
established, and from the eighth until the end of Pesach because Shavu'os
was established. When they say ...
1. ... 'because the Tamid was established' - they are referring to the
bitter Machlokes between the Perushim (the Chachamim) and the powerful
Tzedokim, who maintained that a Yachid could bring a Korban Tzibur (from the
Pasuk in Pinchas "es ha'Keves Echad *Ta'aseh* ba'Boker ... "), until the
Perushim finally convinced them that he could not (from the Pasuk there "es
Korboni Lachmi ... *Tishmeru*.
(b) Chazal included the first of Nisan in the Yamim-Tovim de'Rabbanan, in
spite of the fact that it is Rosh Chodesh, on which fasting and eulogizing
are anyway forbidden - in order to include the day before (the twenty-ninth
of Adar) in the prohibition to fast.
2. ... 'because Shavu'os was established' - they are referring to another
bitter Machlokes between the Perushim and the Baytusim (a sect similar to
the Tzedokim), where the latter claimed that Shavu'os (and therefor the
first day of the Omer) must always fall on a Sunday ("mi'Mochoras
ha'Shabbos" - because they claimed, due to Hashem's love of Yisrael, He gave
them two consecutive days of relaxation, Shabbos and Yom-Tov).
(c) The fact that it is the day before Rosh Chodesh would not have been
sufficient reason to forbid the twenty-ninth of Adar - because Rosh Chodesh
is a Yom-Tov d'Oraysa, and a Yom-Tov d'Oraysa does not require 'Chizuk'
(d) By the same token, they found it necessary to include Pesach in the Yom-
Tov de-Rabbanan, on which fasting and eulogizing are anyway forbidden - in
order to include the day after Yom-Tov in the prohibition of fasting (which
it would not have been, merely because it is the day after Yom-Tov, since
Yom-Tov is d'Oraysa).