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Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Ta'anis 17

TA'ANIS 17, 18, 19 - Ari Kornfeld has generously sponsored the Dafyomi publications for these Dafim for the benefit of Klal Yisrael



(a) Earlier in the Sugya, we connected the Berachah of 'Shomei'a Tze'akah' with Shmuel, and that of 'Shomei'a Tefilah', with Eliyahu. Others reverse the two Berachos: they connect Tefilah with Shmuel, and Tze'akah with Eliyahu. The latter presents a problem - because we do not find a Lashon of Tze'akah by Eliyahu (only of Tefilah, in Melachim - "Aneini Hashem Aneini"), but not the former, where both the Lashon of Tefilah and that of Tze'akah occur.

(b) To resolve the problem - we explain the Pasuk "Aneini Hashem Aneini" to be a Lashon of Tze'akah (and not Tefilah, as we initially thought).

(a) Despite the fact that David and Shlomoh lived long before Yonah, the Tana nevertheless places their Berachah last - in order to conclude with the Berachah on Eretz Yisrael (and David and Shlomoh prayed for Eretz Yisrael - or because they established the Beis-Hamikdash, which is the most important institution in Eretz Yisrael).

(b) 'Baruch ... Mashpil ha'Ramim' - is the text that ended the last of the six Berachos according to Sumchus (and not 'Baruch ... Merachem al ha'Aretz').

(a) According to the Chachamim, a Kohen is forbidden to drink wine nowadays (except for during a meal - see Tosfos DH 've'Yodei'a') ...
1. ... on that day only - if he knows a. to which Mishmeres he belongs; b. to which Beis-Av he belongs, and c. that his Beis-Av was in fact, fixed to serve in the Beis-Hamikdash.
2. ... for the whole week - if he knows to which Mishmeres he belongs (but not to which Beis-Av), provided he also knows that his Beis-Av was in fact, fixed to serve in the Beis-Hamikdash
3. ... for the entire year - if he knows for a fact that his Beis-Av was fixed to serve in the Beis-Hamikdash, but he does not know to which Mishmeres he belongs.
(b) The Tana speaks about the Kohen knowing that his Beis-Av was fixed - because some Batei-Av were *not*, due to the fact that they were disqualified (e.g. through a forbidden marriage).

(c) When Rebbi says ...

1. ... 'Omer Ani, Asur Lishtos Yayin Le'olam' - he means that according to the Chachamim, every Kohen should be forbidden to drink wine at all (even if he does know to which Mishmeres and to which Beis-Av he belongs), in case the Beis-Hamikdash is built suddenly, and he is called upon to serve with all the other available Kohanim at its inauguration (whether it is their turn or not).
2. ... 'Takanaso Kalkalaso' - he means 'Kalkalaso Takanaso' (the Kilkul of the Beis-Hamikdash not having been built for so long, is its Tikun); in other words, we no longer issue stringent rulings on the basis of the far- fetched likelihood that it will be built just today.
(d) Abaye says that seeing as the Kohanim *do* drink wine nowadays, it must be because they hold like Rebbi.
(a) The Kohanim are forbidden to have a haircut or to wash their clothes during their week of Avodah - in order to ensure that they do so before they begin serving in the Beis-Hamikdash (similar to the decree issued by Chazal on Chol Hamo'ed).

(b) We learn from the Pasuk "Melech be'Yofyo Techezenah Einecha" - that a king always had to look smart (so he had to have a haircut every day).

(c) The Kohen Gadol was obligated to have a haircut every Friday - so that the Mishmar of Kohanim who began serving the following day should at the outset, see him looking smart.

(a) We learn that 'S'tam Nezirus Sh'loshim Yom' - from the Pasuk in Naso "Kadosh Yihyeh ... " (and the numerical value of "Yihyeh" is thirty).

(b) We then learn from the 'Gezeirah-Shavah' "Pera" (in Yechezkel) from "Pera" (in Naso) - that (just like a Nazir is forbidden to cut his 'Pera', so too, may) a Kohen not leave a hair-growth of more than thirty days.

(c) We learn from the fact that the Navi writes "u'Fera Lo Yeshaleichu" (and not "Lo Yeshaleichu Pera") - that a Kohen does not need to cut his hair by the twenty-ninth day (see Tosfos DH 'Lo' and note 2 of ha'Rav Renshburg).




(a) Initially, we explain why nowadays, the Kohanim are not forbidden to have a hair-cut - just like they are not forbidden to drink wine.

(b) But that is according to Rebbi. So we explain that even according to the Rabbanan, the Kohanim are permitted to have a hair-cut, in spite of the fact that they are forbidden to drink wine - because in the event of the Beis- Hamikdash being re-built, it does not take long to have a haircut before going to serve there.

(c) They cannot however, drink wine and, should the Beis Hamikdash be built, walk one Mil (eighteen minutes) or sleep for a very short period of time (to shake off the drunkenness) - because of Rav Nachman quoting Rabah bar Avuha, who said that that is only effective for someone who drank up to a Revi'is of wine, but that, if one drank more than that, a little sleep or a short walk would cause him to become even more drunk than before.

(d) According to Rav Ashi, the reason that Chazal forbade Kohanim to drink wine nowadays but not to have a haircut - is because, whereas a Kohen who serves after drinking wine, desecrates the Avodah, a Kohen who serves with long hair does not.

(a) The Torah specifically writes that a Kohen who drinks wine and then performs the Avodah is Chayav Misah. The Tana of the Beraisa knows that the same applies to a Kohen who does the Avodah with more than a thirty day growth of hair - because the Pasuk in Yechezkel compares the two, so that, just as the former is Chayav Misah, so is the latter.

(b) The Derashah from Yechezkel is only an Asmachta (a hint to what we already know). The real source however, is 'Halachah le'Moshe mi'Sinai'.

(c) As a precedent, we have the 'Hekesh' from another Pasuk in Yechezkel "Kol Ben Neichar Areil Leiv ve'Areil Basar Lo Yavo el Mikdashi" - from which we learn that a Kohen who is an Areil (who did not have the B'ris Milah) may not serve in the Beis-Hamikdash (which is really a Halachah le'Moshe mi'Sinai), in the same way as one who is an Areil Leiv (who serves idols).

(d) This presents Rav Ashi (who said earlier - in 6d. - that, whereas a Kohen who serves after drinking wine desecrates the Avodah, a Kohen who serves with long hair does not) with a Kashya - because the same Hekesh which teaches us that a Kohen is Chayav Misah for performing the Avodah with long hair, should also teach us that he desecrates the Avodah (in which case, there will be no reason to permit a Kohen to have a hair-cut nowadays, any more than to drink wine)?

8) To answer the previous Kashya we assume that (Chazal had a tradition that) the Halachah le'Moshe mi'Sinai was handed to Moshe only with regard to the Chiyuv Misah, but not with regard to desecrating the Avodah (some texts do not have this answer, and remain with a Kashya, like the Gemara in Sanhedrin does. See also Tosfos Sanhedrin 22b. DH 'Ela').


(a) Chazal fixed a Yom-Tov (on which it is forbidden even to make a eulogy) from the *first* of Nisan until the *eighth*, because the Tamid was established, and from the eighth until the end of Pesach because Shavu'os was established. When they say ...
1. ... 'because the Tamid was established' - they are referring to the bitter Machlokes between the Perushim (the Chachamim) and the powerful Tzedokim, who maintained that a Yachid could bring a Korban Tzibur (from the Pasuk in Pinchas "es ha'Keves Echad *Ta'aseh* ba'Boker ... "), until the Perushim finally convinced them that he could not (from the Pasuk there "es Korboni Lachmi ... *Tishmeru*.
2. ... 'because Shavu'os was established' - they are referring to another bitter Machlokes between the Perushim and the Baytusim (a sect similar to the Tzedokim), where the latter claimed that Shavu'os (and therefor the first day of the Omer) must always fall on a Sunday ("mi'Mochoras ha'Shabbos" - because they claimed, due to Hashem's love of Yisrael, He gave them two consecutive days of relaxation, Shabbos and Yom-Tov).
(b) Chazal included the first of Nisan in the Yamim-Tovim de'Rabbanan, in spite of the fact that it is Rosh Chodesh, on which fasting and eulogizing are anyway forbidden - in order to include the day before (the twenty-ninth of Adar) in the prohibition to fast.

(c) The fact that it is the day before Rosh Chodesh would not have been sufficient reason to forbid the twenty-ninth of Adar - because Rosh Chodesh is a Yom-Tov d'Oraysa, and a Yom-Tov d'Oraysa does not require 'Chizuk' (reinforcement).

(d) By the same token, they found it necessary to include Pesach in the Yom- Tov de-Rabbanan, on which fasting and eulogizing are anyway forbidden - in order to include the day after Yom-Tov in the prohibition of fasting (which it would not have been, merely because it is the day after Yom-Tov, since Yom-Tov is d'Oraysa).

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