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Ta'anis 15



(a) In time to come, says Rebbi Elazar (commenting on a Pasuk in Yeshayah), kings will stand before B'nei Yisrael and princes will prostrate themselves. In similar vein to the previous question, Rebbi Zeira (or Rebbi Shmuel bar Nachmeini) disagrees with Rebbi Elazar. According to him, the princes will prostrate themselves before Yisrael and stand before them as well.

(b) A Yashar (someone who has *no* tendency to sin) is greater than a Tzadik (who *has* but overcomes it - according to Rashi, though the Rashba disagrees).

(c) In light of that, Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak comments on the Pasuk in Tehilim "Or Zaru'a la'Tzadik, u'le'Yishrei Leiv, Simchah" - that Tzadikim will experience light, and Yesharim, Simchah - exclusively (see Tosfos).

***** Hadran Alach, 'Me'eimasai' *****

***** Perek Seder Ta'aniyos *****


(a) They would take the Aron ha'Kodesh into the street, and everyone took Eifer Makleh and put it on his head. 'Eifer Makleh' - is ashes (as opposed to dust or earth).

(b) Ashes were placed by others on the heads of two important dignitaries - the Nasi and the Av Beis-Din.

(c) The wisest elder among them would say captivating words, which included the Pasuk in Yo'el "Kir'u Levavchem ve'Al Bigdeichem". Based on Seifer Yonah, he would remind the people that Hashem did not forgive the people of Ninveh because of their sackcloth and fasting, but because they had changed their deeds.

(d) The Chazen had to have four qualities: he had to be a 'Zakein ve'Ragil' - and he had to have children and an empty house (which will be discussed in the Gemara).

3) Nevi'im is referred to as 'Divrei Kabalah' whenever the Navi is *warning* Yisrael - whereas whenever he is just relating a *narative*, it is *not*.


(a) The Chazen inserted six extra Berachos in the Amidah - after 'Go'el Yisrael'.

(b) According to the Tana Kama - the first two Berachos were Zichronos and Shofros.

(c) The text of each the other four - was taken from Tehilim.

(d) Rebbi Yehudah re-placed the Berachos of Zichronos and Shofros with a text taken from Tehilim and Yirmiyah respectively.

(a) The Tana lists *seven* 'conclusions' to the Berachos, when really, only *six* were added - because it includes 'Mi she'Anah es Avraham be'Har ha'Mori'ah ... ', which was really the 'conclusion' of the Berachah of Re'ei ve'Anyeinu' (and not part of the extra six Berachos at all).

(b) The connection between ...

1. ... 'Zichronos' and our Fathers at the Yam-Suf - is based on the fact that whilst Yisrael was in Egypt, it seemed as if they had been forgotten, and now they were finally remembered.
2. ... 'Shofros' and Yehoshua at Gilgal - because it was whilst Yisrael were camped there that they defeated Yericho through the blowing of the Shofros.
(c) Zichronos' ends 'Baruch ... Zocher ha'Nishkachos' - Shofros, 'Baruch ... Shomei'a Teru'ah'.
(a) The third Berachah reads 'el Hashem ba'Tzarasah Li ... ', and concludes 'Mi she'Anah es Shmuel ... ', the fourth, 'Esa Einai el he'Harim', and the fifth, 'mi'Ma'amakim Kerasicha Hashem'. In the 'conclusion' of ...
  1. ... the fourth Berachah - we refer to the Tzadik Shmuel.
  2. ... the fifth Beracha - to Eliyahu.
(b) The *third* Berachah ends 'Baruch Shomei'a Tze'akah' - the *fourth*, 'Baruch ... Shmei'a Tefilah'.

(c) The final Berachah begins 'Tefilah le'Ani Ki Ya'atof'. In the 'conclusion' of this Berachah - we refer to David and Shlomoh.

(d) The *fifth* Berachah ends 'Baruch ... ha'Oneh be'Eis Tzarah'. The *final* one - 'Baruch ... ha'Merachem al ha'Aretz'.




(a) When, in the days of Rebbi Chalafta and Rebbi Chananya ben Teradyon, the Chazen concluded the Berachah of Go'eil Yisrael - nobody answered 'Amein' (Presumably, they answered 'Baruch Sheim ... ' instead - see Ran).

(b) The Chachamim objected on the grounds that that Minhag was confined to the Beis Hamikdash.

(c) It was the Shamash who announced 'Tik'u ha'Kohanim, Tik'u'! or 'Hari'u ha'Kohanim, Hari'u'! before each Berachah.

(d) They blew a Teki'ah after 'Go'el Yisrael', a Teru'ah after Zichronos, and a Tek'iah after Shofros, and so on - seven notes all in all.

(a) The ...
1. ... 'Anshei Mishmar' - comprised the members of the entire group of Kohanim who served throughout that week.
2. ... 'Anshei Beis-Av' - comprised one of the seven groups into which each Mishmar was divided, each group serving one day of the week (others say that the Mishmar was divided into six groups, each of which served on one of the weekdays, whilst on Shabbos, all the six groups would serve).
(b) During the first set of fasts, according to Rebbi Yehoshua, the Anshei Beis-Av would not fast at all - the Anshei Mishmar however - would fast but would eat before nightfall.

(c) During the second set of fasts, the Anshei Mishmar were obligated to complete the fast - and it was the Anshei Beis-Av who would fast but eat before nightfall.

(d) That is the opinion of Rebbi Yehoshua; the Chachamim are more lenient. According to them ...

1. ... during the first set of fasts - neither the Anshei Mishmar nor the Anshei Beis-Av would fast at all.
2. ... during the second set - the Anshei Mishmar would fast, but they would eat before nightfall; whereas the Anshei Beis-Av would still not fast at all.
(a) According to Rebbi Yehoshua, both the Anshei Mishmar and the Anshei Beis-Av had to complete the fast during the third set of fasts. According to the Chachamim - the Anshei Mishmar would complete the fast, the Anshei Beis-Av would not.

(b) The Anshei Beis-Av were forbidden to drink wine for the twenty-four hour period that they were on duty - even at night-time, when they had to take any limbs or parts of a Korban that they found *off* the Mizbei'ach, *on* to the Mizbei'ach.

(c) The Anshei Mishmar were forbidden to drink wine during the day because they might be needed to assist in the Avodah, a prohibition that did not extend to the night-time - because there was not *so much* to be done then that the Anshei Beis-Av could not cope with it on their own.

(d) The Anshei Beis-Av and the Anshei Ma'amad (Kohanim, Levi'im and Yisre'eilim whose turn it was that week to represent Yisrael, to stand by the Korbenos Tzibur that were brought that week) were forbidden to have a hair-cut and to wash clothes during the week that they served, except for Thursday, when the prohibition was lifted because of Kavod Shabbos - a concession which applied equally to the Anshei-Mishmar.

(a) The days on which Megilas Ta'anis forbids even eulogizing, the prohibition extends to the day *before*, according to the Tana Kama - in case one goes on to eulogize on the Yom-Tov itself, but not to the day after (since that reason does not apply).

(b) According to Rebbi Yossi - the prohibition applies both to the day before and to the day after.

(c) The days on which only fasting is prohibited, the prohibition is confined to the day itself, but not to the day before or to the day after - Rebbi Yossi forbids the day before, but not the day after.

(a) We have already learned that a series of fasts never begins on a Thursday, in order not to raise the prices before Shabbos. According to the Tana Kama however, the second set of fasts would begin on Thursday (where the first one had left off). Rebbi Yossi says - that just as the *first* set of fasts cannot begin on Thursday, neither can the *second*.

(b) Initially, one does not decree a fast on Rosh Chodesh, Chanukah or Purim. Bedieved however, once they began the fasts, should one of them fall on any of these three days, they nevertheless fasted. That applies both to Chanukah and Purim, which are only mi'de'Rabbanan - and to Rosh Chodesh, which, although it is called a Mo'eid min ha'Torah, is not a Yom 'Mishteh ve'Simchah'.

(c) The Halachah is the opinion of Raban Gamliel - Rebbi Meir comments that even though Raban Gamliel maintains that one does fast on these three days, they do not however, complete the fast.

(d) Rebbi Meir incorporates - Tish'ah be'Av that falls on Friday in this list.

(a) They took the Aron ha'Kodesh out into the street - only on the third set of fasts.

(b) It is evident from the Beraisa that the author of our Mishnah who says that it was *ashes* that they placed on their heads, is Rebbi Yossi. The reason that he insists on *ashes* and not just earth like the Tana Kama of the Beraisa - is because it is reminiscent of the ashes of Yitzchak (i.e. of the ram) of the Akeidah.

(c) We learn that in matters ...

1. ... of greatness one begins from the most eminent person - from Moshe, who first addressed Aharon and then Aharon's sons, Elazar and Isamar.
2. ... of punishment one begins from the smallest - from Hashem, who first cursed the snake, then Chavah and then Adam.
(d) In our Mishnah, they nevertheless first placed the ashes on the heads of the leading dignitaries and only then on their own heads - because although we are dealing with a case of curse, by placing the ashes first on the heads of the important dignitaries, one was acknowledging their greatness (implying that they were the ones who were fit to Daven on their behalf).
(a) The reason that others needed to place the ashes on the heads of the leading dignitaries, whilst everybody else placed the ashes on their own heads - is because with important people, the embarrassment is far greater when they are shamed by others than when they shame themselves (which is not the case by ordinary people).

(b) We derive from the Pasuk in Yeshayah "Lasum la'Aveilei Tzi'on Laseis Lahem Eifer Tachas Pe'er" - that the ashes should be placed on the head, on the place where the Tefilin normally lie.

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