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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Ta'anis 11



(a) One might one be spared from suffering a terrible death in a period of famine - by going hungry as long as the famine is in progress (even if he himself has sufficient to eat).

(b) We learn from the Pasuk in Mikeitz "u'le'Yosef Yulad Sh'nei Banim be'Terem Tavo Sh'nas ha'Ra'av" - that it is forbidden to have children in a time of famine.

(c) The exception to this rule is someone who has had no children (if this means that he has not yet fulfilled the Mitzvah of "P'ru u'Revu" then it is unclear as to why Yosef [who only had two boys] could not have had children even during the time of famine).

(a) If, in time of suffering, someone ignores the community and does not share in their suffering - the two angels who always accompany a person will place their hands on his head and say to him 'So and so who separated from the community, will not witness the consolation of the community'.

(b) The Beraisa says that someone who goes into his house and indulges whilst the community are starving - will not receive an atonement until he dies.

(c) This is what happens when ordinary people sin in this way. When Resha'im sin, the Tzadik dies and nobody cares - to prevent the Tzadikim from praying on the Resha'ims' behalf.

(d) We learn the obligation to suffer with the community - from Moshe Rabeinu, who refused to sit on a proper seat, preferring instead to sit on a stone, whilst Yisrael were fighting with Amalek.

3) Everything that a person does is noted, though who actually does the testifying is a matter of opinion. The various Tana'im learn from the Pasuk ...
1. ... "Ki Even mi'Kir Tiz'ak, ve'Kafis me'Eitz Ta'anenah" - that it is the stones and the beams of his house that testify against him (the Tana Kama).
2. ... "Ki Mal'achav Yetzaveh Lach" - that it is the two angels who always accompany a person to protect him, who testify (de'Bei Rebbi Shilo).
3. ... "mi'Shocheves Cheikecha Sh'mor Pischei Picha" - that it his own Soul that testifies (Rebbi Chidka).
4. ... "Atem Eidai, Ne'um Hashem" - that a person's own limbs do the testifying (Yesh Omrim).
(a) We learn from the Pasuk ...
1. ... "Keil Emunah" - that just as Hashem will pay the Resha'im in the World to Come, even for *their* slightest misdeeds, so too, does He pay the Tzadikim already in *this* world, even for their slightest misdeeds.
2. ... "ve'Ein Avel" - that just as He will pay the Tzadikim in the World to Come, even for their smallest Mitzvos, so too does He pay the Resha'im in this world, even for *their* smallest Mitzvos. (Note: it is interesting that, for the most part, everyone gets paid in the location of his preference.)
3. ... "Tzadik ve'Yashar Hu" - that when a person dies, all his deeds are read out to him, and not only is he asked to sign, but he readily admits that Hashem judged him fairly (as we shall see).
4. ... "be'Yad Kol Adam Yachtom" - that everyone is asked to sign, agreeing that all the sins that are listed are correct.
5. ... "Lema'an Titzdak be'Dovrecha" - that he admits to all his sins.
(b) Shmuel, who maintains that it is sinful to fast, holds like Rebbi Elazar ha'Kapor - who learns from the Pasuk in Naso "ve'Chiper me'Asher Chata al ha'Nefesh" that a Nazir is considered a sinner (for voluntarily undertaking to desist from wine).

(c) Shmuel derives from there - that if someone is called a sinner for desisting just from wine, then how much more so someone who fasts.

(a) Rebbi Elazar disagrees with Shmuel. According to him - someone who fasts is called holy.

(b) He learns this from the Pasuk "Kadosh Yihyeh Gadeil Pera Se'ar Rosho". Now if someone is called holy because he desists from drinking wine, then how much more so someone who fasts.

(c) According to Shmuel - the Pasuk "Kadosh Yihyeh ... " pertains to the Nazir's *hair*, not to the Nazir himself.

(d) And according to Rebbi Elazar - the Pasuk "ve'Chiper me'Asher Chata al ha'Nefesh" - pertains to a Nazir who became Tamei Meis, thereby, negating his Nezirus retroactively (demonstrating that he was not really worthy of the Nezirus vow that he took.




(a) Rebbi Elazar learns from the Pasuk "be'Kirbecha Kadosh" - that a person should consider his stomach as if it was holy (see also Tosfos DH 'Ke'ilu', which is probably based on the Pasuk in Terumah, "ve'Shachanti be'Socham" - see also Agados Maharsha). Consequently, he should not weaken it by fasting.

(b) When Rebbi Elazar said earlier that someone who fasts is called 'Kadosh' - he was referring to someone who is able to fast without undue difficulty; whereas here he is talking about someone who suffers from fasting.

(c) Resh Lakish has a third opinion about someone who fasts. He learns from the Pasuk in Mishlei "Gomel Nafsho Ish Chesed ve'Ocher She'eiro" - that someone who desists from fasting is called a Chasid (a pious person), because one is being cruel to oneself by fasting.

(d) According to Rav Sheishes - a Talmid who is fasting should as well throw the food that he saves to a dog (that is, it is not a good thing to do). He holds like the opinions who frown on the concept of fasting (see also Agados Maharsha).

(a) Rebbi Yirmiyah bar Aba says that there is no Ta'anis-Tzibur in Bavel other than Tish'ah be'Av - which means that, with the exception of Tish'ah- be'Av, the obligation to fast begins only in the morning, and that all other prohibitions (such as washing and wearing shoes), do not apply to them.

(b) He also forbade Talmidei-Chacham to fast (private fasts) - because it detracts from their Torah-studies.

(a) 'Tefilas Ta'anis' is 'Aneinu'.

(b) According to Rav Huna, an individual who undertakes to fast ...

1. ... says Tefilas Ta'anis at Shachris on the day of his fast after having eaten during the night (see Tosfos DH 'Lan', as to why the community do not say it nowadays until Minchah).
2. ... does not say it on the day after his fast, even if he did not eat all night following the fast.
(c) Rav Yosef is not certain whether Rav Huna's reason in the latter case, is because he holds that a partial fast is *not* considered a fast at all, or whether it *is* considered a fast, only a partial fast does not warrant Tefilas Ta'anis. Abaye maintains that even if a partial fast *is* considered a fast, and even if a partial fast *does* warrant Tefilas Ta'anis, he will not say Tefilas Ta'anis in this case - because he did not undertake to fast at the previous Minchah.
(a) When Mar Ukva arrived in Ginzak, they asked him three She'eilos, none of which he was able to answer. They ruled in the Beis-Hamedrash that ...
1. ... if someone fasts part of the day - it is considered a Ta'anis, and that one inserts Tefilas Ta'anis in the Amidah?
2. ... earthenware jars of Nochrim that contained wine - are permitted after twelve months (though this does not necessarily apply to other more stringent Isurim).
3. ... during the seven days of the Milu'im - Moshe Rabeinu wore a white linen robe.
(b) Rav Kahanah added - that the robe had no hem anywhere, so that nobody could suspect Moshe of walking out with Hekdesh money hidden inside the hem (because the Torah writes in Matos "vi'Heyisem Neki'im me'Hashem u'mi'Yisrael" - meaning that one is obligated to avoid suspicion being cast on oneself).

(c) It must have been Mar Ukva about whom we are speaking, and not Rebbi Akiva, because Rebbi Akiva would not have been stumped by such She'eilos. In addition - it is the way of the Gemara to introduce Tana'im by way of a Beraisa, and not just to mention them by name.

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