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Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Ta'anis 3

TA'ANIS 2-5 sponsored by a generous grant from an anonymous donor. Kollel Iyun Hadaf is indebted to him for his encouragement and support and prays that Hashem will repay him in kind.



(a) Rebbi Nasan learns Nisuch ha'Mayim from the double expression in Pinchas "ba'Kodesh *Hasech* *Nesech* Sheichar la'Hashem". He knows that both words do not refer to Nisuch ha'Yayin - because if they did, then the Torah would have written "Hasech Hasech" or "Nesech Nesech".

(b) We think that, according to Rebbi Yehoshua, they performed Nisuch ha'Mayim only on *one* day (though it is not clear why - see Maharsha). According to Rebbi Akiva, who learns Nisuch ha'Mayim from "u'Nesacheha" - they performed it for *two*, on the sixth and on the seventh.

(c) According to Rebbi Yehudah (in Sukah), they performed Nisuch ha'Mayim all *eight* days - 'Halachah le'Moshe mi'Sinai'.

(a) We initially try to establish the Mishnah in Sukah, which says that Nisuch ha'Mayim took place all *seven* days of Sukos, like Rebbi Yehudah ben Beseira (who learns Nisuch ha'Mayim from "ve'Niskeihem" "u'Nesacheha" and "ke'Mishpatam" - by adding the eighth day (like Rebbi Yehudah ben Beseira), but beginning only on the second, because that is where the Derashah begins.

(b) We reject that contention however - on the grounds that, in the same way as we eliminate the *first* day, because the Derashah only begins on the *second*, so too, must we eliminate the *eighth*, because the Limud ends on the *seventh*.

(c) Ultimately - we establish the Mishnah in Sukah like Rebbi Yehoshua, who holds that Nisuch ha'Mayim was performed all seven days of Sukos 'Halachah le'Moshe mi'Sinai'.

(d) Rebbi Yehoshua's source for this - is cited by Rebbi Ami Amar Rebbi Yochanan who, quoting Rebbi Nechunyah Ish Baka'as, states that 'ten saplings', 'Aravah' and 'Nisuch ha'Mayim' are all Halachah le'Moshe mi'Sinai.

(a) Rebbi Nechunyah Ish Baka'as meant by ...
1. ... 'ten saplings' - that one is permitted to water a field of a Beis Sa'ah (fifth by fifty Amos) in which ten saplings are growing, right up to Rosh Hashanah of the Sh'mitah (even though other fields are forbidden already thirty days earlier.
2. ... 'Aravah' - the Mitzvah of taking the Aravah in the Beis Hamikdash on Sukos.
(b) Rebbi Yehudah in the Beraisa quotes Rebbi Yehoshua, who says that it is only the Ba'al Musaf on Shemini Atzeres who mentions rain. He cannot have been referring to Rebbi Yehoshua (ben Chananyah) ...
1. ... of our Mishnah - because *he* says that one mentions rain on the last day (implying the Ba'al Shachris, too - it is unclear why it should not incorporate Ma'ariv, too).
2. ... of the Beraisa - because he says there that they began mentioning rain as soon as stopped taking Lulav (at the end of the seventh day - meaning already from *Ma'ariv* of the eighth).
(c) The 'ben Beseira' in the Beraisa who conforms with the seven days of Rebbi Yehudah quoting Rebbi Yehoshua, cannot be Rebbi *Yehudah* ben Beseira - because *he* says that they only began on the second day (until the sixth - a total of five days).

(d) We finally kill two birds with one stone by establishing both the identity of Rebbi Yehoshua quoted by Rebbi Yehudah, and that of ben Beseira - as being Rebbi Yehoshua ben Beseira. Before he received Semichah, they referred to him as ben Beseira, afterwards, as Rebbi Yehoshua.

(a) According to the Beraisa - one is not obligated to say 'Mashiv ha'Ru'ach or 'Morid ha'Tal' either in the winter or in the summer, though one is permitted to do so (regarding the advantages of saying 'Morid ha'Tal', see Tosfos, Amud Beis, DH 'bi'Yemos').

(b) The reason for this is because the wind and the dew never cease anyway, so saying them or not saying them, makes no real difference.

(a) We learn from the fact that Hashem instructed Eliyahu to go and appear before Ach'av and inform him that He was about to send *rain* and did not mention dew - that the dew did not cease to function (despite the fact that Hashem seemed to have said that it would), because dew never ceases.

(b) When, three years earlier, Eliyahu had warned Ach'av of the impending drought, he told him that there would be no rain and no *dew* for the next few years - he was referring to the dew of Berachah.

(c) Hashem did not add the dew of blessing when He instructed Eliyahu to inform Ach'av that He was about to send rain - because there is no way of distinguishing between dew which is not of Berachah, and dew which is (and dew which was not of Berachah had been falling all the time).




(a) The Pasuk "Ki ke'Arba Ruchos ha'Shamayim Perasti Eschem, Ne'um Hashem" - is saying that just as the world cannot exist without winds (because of the unbearable heat and humidity that would then prevail), so too, can it not exist without Yisrael (on whose behalf it was created).

(b) We learn from there - that the winds never cease to function.

(c) Had the Navi meant to say that Hashem spread us across the four corners of the earth - then he should have said "Ki *be*'Arba Ruchos ha'Shamayim Perasti Eschem, Ne'um Hashem" (rather than "Ki *ke*'Arba Ruchos ... ").

(d) One does ...

1. ... not need to go back for saying 'Mashiv ha'Ru'ach' in summer, or for not saying it in winter - because, as we said earlier, since the wind will blow anyway, it makes no difference whether one says it or not.
2. ... need to go back for saying 'Morid ha'Gashem' in summer or for not saying it in winter - because rain is a Si'man of curse in summer, and its absence a tremendous loss in winter.
(a) The Torah writes "ve'Atzar es ha'Shamayim (ve'Lo Yihyeh Matar)", implying that there will be no thick clouds and no winds, as well as no rain - because we already know that there will be no rain from the next words in the Pasuk "ve'Lo Yiyheh Matar".

(b) This appears to clash with what we just learned (that both the clouds and the winds will never cease). To answer this discrepancy with regard to the clouds, we differentiate between clouds that appear *before* the rain (which can *not* cease) and those that follow it (which *can*).
Nevertheless, we do not mention the clouds together with the rain on account of the clouds that follow the rain - since not *all* clouds cease.

(c) We answer the same discrepancy regarding the winds - by differentiating between regular winds (which *do* cease) and strong winds (which do *not*).

(d) We cannot differentiate between the clouds that appear *before* the rain and those that appear afterwards (like we answered by the clouds) - because regular winds *never* cease, (not even those that blow before the rain).

(a) We do not mention the winds on account of the strong ones (which we just explained, *can* cease, and) which are needed for the threshing of the corn - because one can get by without them by using artificial wind (such as by blowing bellows).

(b) When the Tana of the Beraisa says that the wind is only second to the rain - he is referring to the wind that follows the rain, which is beneficial.

(c) According to Ula (or Rav Yehudah), the Pasuk which says "Hashem will turn the rain of your land into powder and dust" - is referring to the wind that follows the rain.

(d) The Tana of the Beraisa who implies that the wind that follows the rain is beneficial - speaks about a gentle wind (which does *not* blow dust on to the produce); whereas Ula (or Rav Yehudah), who learns that it is damaging - speaks about a strong wind (which *does*).

(a) If both wind and thick clouds that follow the rain are like *one* rain, then sunshine that follows the rain (which is *extremely* beneficial) - is considered as *two*.

(b) This list comes to preclude (besides night-flashes) - sunlight that shines through the gaps in the clouds, which is not beneficial at all.

(a) Snow is particularly beneficial to the mountains - because the rain, which flows down their slopes without getting a chance to sink into the ground, does not benefit them at all.


  1. Strong rain - is most beneficial for the trees themselves.
  2. Medium rain - for the fruit.
  3. Drizzle - even for the grains of corn that are waiting to grow below the surface of the ground.
(c) 'Urfila' (drizzle) is the acronym of 'Uru Pili' - which means 'it arouses the grains waiting to grow below the surface of the earth'.
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