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1) [line 1] BISHVIL MISHNASO SHE'EINAH SEDURAH ALAV - because he does not remember the Mishnayos that he learned or because he learned them with mistakes
2) [line 3] YARBEH B'YESHIVAH - he should spend a lot of time in a Yeshiva (where the students are reviewing the Mishnayos)
3) [line 12] SHE'EINO MASBIR LO PANIM - that he does not show him a bright face; he is not friendly towards him
4) [line 16] "IM YISHOCH HA'NACHASH B'LO LACHASH, V'EIN YISRON L'VA'AL HA'LASHON" - If the snake bites because it was not charmed, there is no benefit to the master of the tongue [i.e. the snake, who harms through his bite]" (Koheles 10:11) - The word for snake, Nachash, is similar to the word for copper, Nechoshes. As such the Gemara interprets this verse as follows: "If the sky is as red as copper (and has become "rusty" with not doing its task -- TOSFOS), it is because of those who do not utilize their ability to pray the silent prayer (and fulfill their obligation through listening to the repetition of the Chazan).
5) [line 18] MISHTAKIN - turn red like rust (O.F. rodil - rust)
8) [line 33] MISKAN'IN B'AF - provoke the Creator's Anger
10a) [line 37] DORES - treads its prey
12) [line 39] "NISA LEVAVENU EL KAPAYIM..." - "Let us lift up our heart with our hands [to HaSh-m in the heavens.]" (Eichah 3:41)
13) [line 40] "VA'YEFATUHU V'FIHEM..." - "Nevertheless they flattered Him with their mouth, and they lied to Him with their tongues. For their heart was not constant with Him, nor were they faithful in His covenant." (Tehilim 78:36-37)
14) [line 43] BA'ALEI AMANAH - people who trust each other, especially in business dealings (and who trust in the Creator)
15) [line 43] "EMES ME'ERETZ TITZMACH, V'TZEDEK MI'SHAMAYIM NISHKAF." - "Truth shall spring from the earth; and righteousness shall look down from heaven." (Tehilim 85:12) - Rashi explains that "Tzedek," righteousness, refers to the rain.
16) [line 44] ME'CHULDAH U'BOR- from the story of two people who guaranteed their trust using a marten or weasel and a pit. Tosfos relates that a young man once rescued a young woman from a pit on the condition that she marry him. She agreed, and they each swore to the fact, however no one else witnessed the vows. The woman asked him upon what could she rely that he would be true to his word? At that moment a marten passed by the pit. He answered that the marten and the pit would be his trustees. They went their separate ways and years later the man violated his trust and married another woman. She bore him two sons, who met their death under unusual circumstances: one was killed by a marten and the other fell into a pit. When his wife remarked about the strange occurrences, he remembered his vow and related the story to his wife. Upon her advice, he divorced her and married the first woman, who had not violated her trust.
17) [line 45] HA'MA'AMIN B'HAKADOSH BARUCH HU - one who puts his trust in HaSh-m (and relies on Him to be his trustee, and to be the judge Who champions his cause)
18) [line 46] HA'MATZDIK ES ATZMO MILEMATAH - a person who refines his
20) [line 48] "PAGA'TA ES SAS..." - "You struck down the righteous one who rejoiced [in Your service] and acted righteously, those who mentioned You when Your ways brought them suffering, saying, "Behold, You are angry for I have sinned" -- they are the ones who bring salvation to the world! " (Yeshayah 64:4)
21) [line 9] "PAKADTA HA'ARETZ VATESHOKEKEHA..." - "You visit the earth, and water it; You greatly enrich it with the river of HaSh-m, which is full of water; [You provide their grain, for You have prepared it.]" (Tehilim 65:10)
22) [line 12] KUBAH - a tent; compartment
24a) [line 18] BOROS - wells that are dug in the ground
29) [line 30] GAZUR GEZEIRAH V'GAZUR D'LO L'MEISAV B'SA'ANISA - (a) the Romans mandated a decree and the content of the decree was that the Jews should not fast. Their intention was that no rain should fall on Eretz Yisrael. (RASHI); (b) the Romans decreed Shemad (religious persecution) against the Jews and they also decreed that the Jews may not fast. Their intention was that the decree should not be abolished. (RABBENU GERSHOM)
30) [line 31] NEKABLEI ILAVAN - we will accept the fast upon us now [and we will actually fast after the decree is abolished]
31) [line 40] D'TZARICH L'VERYASA - that it is necessary for all living
38) [last line] "NESI'IM V'RU'ACH V'GESHEM AYIN..." - "Whoever boasts of a gift which he did not give is like clouds and wind without rain." (Mishlei 25:14) - Rashi offers an alternate explanation, where the word "Ayin" refers to the clouds, the wind and the rain, and as such the verse means, "Whoever boasts of a gift which he did not give is like a year without clouds, wind or rain."