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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Sukah 54

SUKA 36-56 (End of Maseches) have been dedicated by the wife and daughters of the late Dr. Simcha Bekelnitzky (Simcha Gedalya ben Shraga Feibush) of Queens N.Y. Well known in the community for his Chesed and Tzedakah, he will long be remembered.



(a) The author of our Mishnah, who maintains that they blew the trumpets on the Mizbe'ach (i.e. when they placed the Aravos on the Yesod of the Mizbe'ach), is Rebbi Eliezer ben Ya'akov - who maintains that as far as the water-drawing ceremony is concerned, they only blew when they reached the respective gates, in which case, they would not have blown on the tenth step.

(b) And the Tana Kama of Rebbi Eliezer ben Ya'akov in the Beraisa does not require the three blasts on the Mizbe'ach - because all the blowing connected with the Mitzvah of Aravah was confined to the water-drawing ceremony.

(a) If we explain the 'three blasts on the Mizbe'ach' (of Rebbi Eliezer ben Ya'akov) as referring to the three blasts that they blew when they were taking the water on to the Mizbe'ach (and not to those that they blew when they placed the Aravos on the Yesod) - that will leave us with three blasts too many, asks Rashi?

(b) Perhaps, he ventures to suggest, the three blasts that they blew when the Kohanim placed the Aravos on the Mizbe'ach, coincided with those that they blew as the water was being taken to the Mizbe'ach?

(c) Rav Acha bar Chanina learns from the Pasuk "u'V'nei Aharon ha'Kohanim *Yiske'u* ba'Chatzotzeros" - that the Kohanim would blow nine blasts for each Musaf that they brought that day.

(a) When the Gemara asks that, according to Rav Acha bar Chanina, we will find a day on which fifty-one blasts are blown, and not just forty-eight - it is referring to Shabbos during Sukos, when they would blow nine for the Musaf of Shabbos instead of the six of Erev Shabbos.

(b) The one who answered that, on Shabbos, they did not blow for the opening of the gates, didn't quite know what he was talking about, says Rava, and for two reasons: first of all, our Mishnah says that they blew the twenty- one blasts *every day* - even on Shabbos! And besides, even if he was right, and they did not blow for the opening of the gates - why did the Tana not present the case of Shabbos that fell on Sukos, to tell us not only the Chidush of Rebbi Eliezer ben Ya'akov (that they blew for 'on the Mizbe'ach', and not for the tenth step), but also that of Rav Acha Acha bar Chanina (that they blew for each Musaf), rather than Erev Shabbos during Sukos, which only informs us of the former Chidush, but not, of the latter.

(c) Consequently, Rava explains that they did not blow fifty-one blasts on Shabbos - because they did not blow all the (twelve) blasts of the water- drawing ceremony on Shabbos (seeing as the water had already been drawn the day before.

(a) We ask why, according to Rav Acha bar Chanina, the Tana does not state the case of Rosh Hashanah that falls on Shabbos - where they would blow forty-eight blasts (the twenty-one daily ones, plus the twenty-seven blasts for the three Musafin - Shabbos, Rosh ha'Shanah and Rosh Chodesh).

(b) We reject the answer that the Tana prefers to present the case of Erev Shabbos of Sukos, to teach us the Chidush of Rebbi Eliezer ben Ya'akov - on the grounds that there seems to be no plausible reason as to why the Tana should present both cases.

(c) Based on the principle 'Tana ve'Shiyer', we try to answer that the Tana also omits the case of an ordinary Erev Pesach - when they would also blow forty-eight blasts (twenty-seven blasts for the three groups who brought the Korban Pesach, over and above the twenty-one of every day).

(d) But we repudiate this answer too, on the grounds that our Tana may well hold like Rebbi Yehudah (in Pesachim) - who holds that the third group never even reached "Ahavti" (of the first recital of Hallel), in which case they would only have blown *three* for the third group, and not *nine*.




(a) How can we possibly establish the Mishnah (which gives the maximum number of blasts as forty-eight) like Rebbi Yehudah - when we learned above that, according to Rebbi Yehudah, they blew not forty-eight blasts, but sixteen (as we explained there)?

(b) We nevertheless insist that our Tana, who might well agree with the Rabbanan as regards the number of blasts, could follow the opinion of Rebbi Yehudah as regards the third group on Erev Sukos.

(c) We finally explains that the Tana omits Rosh Hashanah that fell on Shabbos - because it also omits Erev Pesach that fell on Erev Shabbos, where, even according to Rebbi Yehudah, the six that they would blow every Erev Shabbos, would re-place the six that were missing from the third group.

(a) According to the Rabbanan - on Erev Pesach that fell on Shabbos, they would blow fifty-seven blasts.

(b) The reason that our Mishnah gives the maximum number of blasts as forty- eight, even though we have the case of Erev Pesach that fell on Shabbos - our Mishnah is referring to cases that occur every year (but it is not every year that Erev Pesach falls on Shabbos).

(c) In that case, we ask, Erev Shabbos of Sukos does not occur every year either - because, when the first day of Yom-Tov (and then Shemini Atzeres) falls on Erev Shabbos, they would not blow the trumpets, since the Simchas Beis Hasho'eivah does not over-ride Yom-Tov.

(a) To answer the previous question, we point out that the first day of Sukos cannot fall on Erev Shabbos - because then Yom Kipur will have fallen on Sunday (which Beis-Din would avoid at all costs, due to 'Yarkaya' [the difficulty of obtaining fresh vegetables for Motza'i Yom Kipur], and 'Meisaya' [the problem of burying someone who died on the Shabbos, and who will have been lying for close to two days before he can be buried].


1. The Mishnah in Shabbos says that the Chalavim of Shabbos may be brought on the Yom Kipur that follows it (because the Kedushah of Shabbos is greater than that of Yom-Kipur).
2. Rebbi Zeira says about the Beraisa there, which rules that neither did they blow the Shofar (to stop the people from working) when Shabbos followed Yom Kipur, nor did they recite Havdalah when Yom Kipur followed Shabbos - is unanimous.
(c) They did not ...
1. ... blow the Shofar when Shabbos followed Yom Kipur - because Yom Kipur is as much Asur to do Melachah as Shabbos (and the obligation to blow the trumpet only applies when a day on which Melachah *is* permitted is followed by a day when it is *not*).
2. ... recite Havdalah when Yom Kipur followed Shabbos - because one only recites 'Havdalah' on a day on which Melachah *is* forbidden is followed by a day on which it is *not*, whereas here, Yom Kipur is as much forbidden as Shabbos.
(d) Both the Mishnah and the Beraisa in Shabbos clearly hold that Yom Kipur *can* fall on Sunday - because the author is Acheirim, who maintains that the calendar was fixed, and could not be manipulated for any reason whatsoever; whereas the author of our Mishnah, which holds that Erev Sukos was never allowed to fall on Friday, is the Rabbanan.
(a) Acheirim says that there are always four days between Shavu'os of one year and the next (e.g. if Shavu'os of one year fell on Sunday, then on the following year it will fall on Thursday - and the same will apply to Rosh Hashanah).

(b) The assumption that from one Molad to the next is twenty-nine and a half days - will give us fifty-nine days every two months. Consequently, Acheirim holds that the months must follow the strict pattern of one *full* month and one *short* one. The six sets that comprise a year will total three hundred and fifty four days, which, when divided by seven (the days of the week), come to three and fifty, leaving us with four days, by which any given date will be subsequently pushed back next year.

(c) The reason that it will always be *five* days later in a leap-year is because the extra month (Adar Sheini), according to Acheirim, is always a short one of twenty-nine days (four weeks and a day), leaving us with an extra day to add to the four days by which any given date is already pushed back.

(a) Rav Safra explains that, according to Rav Acha bar Chanina - when the Beraisa rules that the Shir of Rosh Chodesh overrides that of Shabbos, it does not mean literally that it *overrides* it, but that it comes *first*.

(b) The Shir of Rosh Chodesh precedes that of Shabbos, in spite of the principle ' ... Tadir Kodem' - in order to publicize the fact that it is Rosh Chodesh (since most people did not see the new moon).

(c) According to the Tana in Shabbos, they placed the Chalavim of ...

1. ... the Tamid shel Shachar - on the lower half of the ramp on the *east* side.
2. ... the Musaf of Shabbos - also on the lower half of the ramp, but on the *west*.
3. ... the Musaf of Rosh Chodesh - on the upper half of the ramp, close to the ledge that marked the half-way mark from the ground. They placed it higher up than that of Shabbos - in order to publicize the fact that it was Rosh Chodesh.
(d) They needed the second form of recognition of singing the Shir of Rosh Chodesh before that of Shabbos - so that whoever did not see the one, would see the other.
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