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Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Sukah 46

SUKA 36-56 (End of Maseches) have been dedicated by the wife and daughters of the late Dr. Simcha Bekelnitzky (Simcha Gedalya ben Shraga Feibush) of Queens N.Y. Well known in the community for his Chesed and Tzedakah, he will long be remembered.



(a) According to the Tana of the Beraisa, one recites 'Shehechiyanu' over ...
1. ... the Lulav - when binding the three species on Erev Yom-Tov.
2. ... the Sukah - when putting it up.
(b) One recites the Berachah ...
1. ... over the Lulav - on each of the seven days.
2. ... over the Sukah - only the first time he enters it.
(c) This Beraisa goes perfectly with Shmuel's opinion. Rabah bar bar Chanah (whose opinion is the exact opposite of Shmuel's) will reconcile the Beraisa's opinion of ...
1. ... Lulav with his own - by establishing it in the time of the Beis Hamikdash, when Lulav was min ha'Torah all seven days.
2. ... Sukah ... with his own - by pointing out a Machlokes Tana'im in this matter, and that he holds like the other Tana (Rebbi).
(a) According to Rebbi, one recites a Berachah each time one puts on Tefilin. The Chachamim say - that one only recites a Berachah when one puts them on for the first time that day (after which, even a Hesech ha'Da'as will not necessitate a new Berachah).

(b) The same Machlokes will apply to Sukah - Rebbi will require a fresh Berachah whenever (following a Hesech ha'Da'as) one enters the Sukah again; whereas according to the Rabbanan, one only recites a Berachah the first time that one enters the Sukah on Sukos, but not any time after that.

(c) *Abaye* rules like Rebbi. *Rava* initially holds like the Chachamim.

(d) Rav Mari the son of Shmuel's daughter, saw Rava leave the bathroom and, after washing his hands, he recited another Berachah over his Tefilin.

(a) Mar Zutra saw Rav Papi recite a Berachah whenever he *put on* Tefilin - and the Rabbanan of Bei Rav Ashi, whenever they *touched* them.

(b) According to Rav Yehudah Amar Shmuel, the Mitzvah of Lulav is d'Oraysa all seven days (even outside the Beis Hamikdash); according to Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi, only the *first* day is d'Oraysa. Rav Yitzchak at first said that - nowadays, the Mitzvah of Lulav is mi'de'Rabbanan throughout Sukos. However, after querying this (on the basis of the established fact that on the first day at least, the Mitzvah of Lulav is known to be mi'd'Oraysa), we add 'except for the first day' (when it is d'Oraysa) and in fact, he holds like Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi.

(c) We know that Rav will obligate a Berachah throughout Sukos, despite the fact that the last six days are only mi'de'Rabbanan (like Ravin Amar Rebbi Yochanan) - from the statement that he made obligating a Berachah before kindling the Chanukah-lights (even though too, they are purely mi'de'Rabbanan).

(d) On the first night of Chanukah, would one recite only *two* Berachos and not *three* - if one saw lit Chanukah lights, but did not actually light oneself (in which case, one would recite 'she'Asah Nisim' and 'Shehechiyanu', but not 'Lehadlik').

4) The two possible sources for reciting a Berachah over a Mitzvah de'Rabbanan, even though the text contains the word 've'Tzivanu' - are "Lo Sasur ... " (Shoftim) and "She'al Avicha ... " (Ha'azinu), turning every Mitzvah de'Rabbanan into a d'Oraysa.


(a) We learned earlier that one recites 'Shehechiyanu' when erecting one's Sukah. According to the Tana of another Beraisa, if the Sukah has already been built - then one ties to add something new to it in order to recite it.

(b) If there is nothing to add - then, when one enters it for the first time, he recites 'Shehechiyanu', together with 'Leishev ba'Sukah'.

(c) Rav Ashi saw Rav Kahana - reciting both Berachos together with Kidush.

(a) According to the Tana Kama, someone who is about to perform a number of Mitzvos, recites 'Asher Kideshanu ... al ha'Mitzvos'. According to Rebbi Yehudah however, he is obligated to recite a separate Berachah for each Mitzvah.

(b) Rebbi Yehudah learns this from the Pasuk in Tehilim "Baruch Hashem Yom Yom" - which he explains to mean 'Bless Hashem for each individual item, just as you bless Him each day specifically for whichever day it is (Shabbos, Rosh Chodesh or Yom-Tov).

(c) We cannot interpret this Pasuk literally - because then it would imply that one only blesses Hashem by day and not by night!?

(d) Rebbi Zeira (and some say Rav Chanina bar Papa) rules like Rebbi Yehudah.




(a) Rebbi Zeira (and some Rav Chanina bar Papa) learns from the double Lashon in the Pasuk in Ki Savo "ve'Hayah Im Shamo'a Tishme'u" - that, in spiritual matters (unlike with physical things), the fuller one becomes, the more one's capacity grows (whenever one listens, one wants to listen more).

(b) He also learns from there that - someone who listens to the old (i.e. revises what he has already learned), will merit to learn the new (i.e. to understand new things from the old things that he learned); but "ve'Im Yifneh Levavecha Shuv Lo Tishma" - If one turns away, and does not take the trouble to revise what he has learned, he will not merit to receive any more Divine assistance in his learning.

(a) According to Resh Lakish, an Esrog is permitted as soon as one has performed the Mitzvah with it on the *seventh* day. Rebbi Yochanan says that it remains Asur until the *eighth* day - because it is designated for the entire seven days.

(b) Our Mishnah permits grown-ups to eat the children's Esrogim as soon as the Mitzvah is over on the seventh day. Rashi objects to those who explain that the *children* would immediately eat their *own* Esrogim (even though this is inherent in the words, as Tosfos points out on Amud a) - on the basis of a Medrash Rabah, which tells the story of a certain Chasid who snatched Esrogim from the hands of the children, citing our Mishnah as the source.

(c) Resh Lakish assumes that 'from the hands of the children' mentioned in our Mishnah, is not exclusive, and that, in reality, one could even snatch the Esrogim from the hands of the *grown-ups* too, and eat *them* - which goes to prove that one is permitted to eat an Esrog that was designated for a Mitzvah even before the eighth day, a proof against Rebbi Yochanan.

(d) Rebbi Yochanan rejects the Kashya however. In his opinion - the Tana deliberately mentioned 'from the hands of the children', because it was only *their* Esrogim that are permitted then, but not the Esrogim of the grown- ups.

(a) The Esrog of a child is permitted already on the *seventh* day, according to Rebbi Yochanan - because (seeing as he is *not* really Chayav Mitzvos) the Esrog is not designated for a proper Mitzvah, whereas that of a grown-up *is*, and therefore remains Muktzah until the *eighth* day.

(b) Resh Lakish (who does *not* differentiate between the two), understands that the Tana mentions the Esrog of children only because it is more common to snatch *their* Esrogim than those of grown-ups.

(a) Rebbi Yochanan's permits an *Esrog* on the eighth day because once Bein Hashemashos of Shemini Atzeres arrives, it is not fit to be taken (because it is Muktzah on Yom-Tov) - a *Sukah*, on the other hand, *is fit* to be used during Beis Hashemashos of the seventh day should the need arise. Consequently, it remains designated for the Mitzvah during Beis Hashemashos, and whatever is Muktzah Bein Hashemashos, remains Muktzah the entire day.

(b) Levi forbids even an Esrog (even) on the eighth day - because it is Muktzah during Bein Hashemashos of the seventh day (in case it is still the *seventh* day - see also Tosfos DH 'Esrog' - in spite of the fact that he is not permitted to use it in case it is the *eighth*).

(c) Shmuel's father initially held like Rebbi Yochanan, and then changed his mind to hold like Levi - Rebbi Zeira adopts the view that Shmuel's father originally held. He said that an Esrog that became Pasul remains forbidden all seven days (like Rebbi Yochanan).

(a) Rebbi Zeira forbids giving one's Lulav to a child on the first day - (before he has been Yotze himself) - because a child has the power to acquire, but not to be Makneh (to place into another person's possession), in which case, the grown-up will not be able to be Yotze (see Shulchan Aruch - Si'man 658:6).

(b) Rebbi Zeira learns from the Pasuk in Yirmiyah "Limdu Leshonam Daber Sheker" - that one should never promise to give a child something, and then not adhere to one's word, so as not to teach him to lie.

(c) Rav holds that if one designated seven Esrogim for the seven days of Sukos, he may eat each Esrog *the day after* he has been Yotze with it. Rav Asi says that - he may eat it as soon as he been Yotze with it, even on *the same day*.

(d) It is Rav who holds like Rebbi Yochanan in the previous Sugya, and Rav Asi, like Resh Lakish - the Halachah will be like Rebbi Yochanan (as it always is when he argues with Resh Lakish) and Rav (who was the Rebbe of Rav Asi).

(a) In Chutz la'Aretz, Abaye permits the Lulav on Simchas Torah, but forbids it on Shemini Atzeres (because he decrees the Lulav because of the Sukah - Tosfos DH 'Shemini). Mereimar permits it even on Shemini Atzeres.

(b) The Gemara rules explicitly like Abaye.

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