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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Sukah 42

SUKA 42 (42nd of Omer/27 Iyar) - Dedicated by Gitle Bekelnitzky in honor of the 1st yahrzeit of her father, Zev ben Ephraim v'Chaya Krause.



(a) We have already learned that Rebbi Yossi exempts someone who carried his Lulav into the street on the first day of Sukos that fell on Shabbos. Abaye inform us that he will still be Chayav however - if he had already fulfilled the Mitzvah previously (since then, he had no justifiable reason to be busy with the Mitzvah - which is the reason that Rebbi Yossi exempts him from a Chatas).

(b) According to Abaye, asks the Gemara - when will one ever be Patur, seeing as, the moment one picks up the Lulav, he is already Yotze the Mitzvah?

(c) Abaye establishes Rebbi Yossi - when one picks up the Lulav (or the Esrog) upside down, in which case he will not be Yotze.

(d) Rava establishes Rebbi Yossi when he carried the Lulav inside a jar (even if he carried it the right way). When he ruled earlier that carrying via a vessel is nevertheless considered carrying - that is only when he carries in a respectable manner (such as, inside a cloth), but not when it is degrading (such as inside a vessel).

(a) The Kohanim made Melikah (killing a Korban ha'Of by pinching its neck) on ...
  1. ... the Olas ha'Of - on the south-*eastern* corner.
  2. ... the Chatas ha'Of - on the south-*western* corner.
(b) Rav Huna says that, according to Rebbi Yossi, if a Kohen found an Olas ha'Of and ate it, thinking it was a Chatas ha'Of, he is Patur. This is possible - because sometimes, when there are a lot of Olos ha'Of, they would take the excess birds to the south-*western* corner and make Melikah *there* (in the same location as the Chata'os ha'Of - except that the blood of the Olah was sprinkled *above* the red thread, and that of the Chatas, *below*).

(c) Rav Huna is teaching us here - that Rebbi Yossi does not only exempt from a Chatas if the sinner actually *performed* a Mitzvah (such as taking the Lulav), but even if he did *not* (such as eating an Olas ha'Of).

(d) When Rebbi Yossi says in a Beraisa that someone who Shechts a Tamid that was *not* inspected on Shabbos, thinking that it *was*, is Chayav - he speaks when he carelessly took the animal from a room which contained animals that had not been inspected; and this does not fall under the category of 'erring by a D'var Mitzvah' (which is close to an Ones), of which Rav Huna is speaking.

(a) The Tana Kama of our Mishnah permits a woman to receive the Lulav from her husband or son on Shabbos, and to return it to water.
Specifically 'a woman' - to teach us that, even though she is not obligated to fulfill the Mitzvah of Lulav, the Lulav is not considered Muktzah for her (seeing as it is fit for men).

(b) Rebbi Yehudah rules that on *Shabbos* one may only return the Lulav to the water where it *was previously*; on *Yom-Tov* one is even permitted to *add water*, whereas on *Chol ha'Mo'ed* one may (and one even should) *exchange the water*, in order to keep it fresh.

(c) A small child is obligated to Bensch Lulav - as soon as he knows how to shake it.

(a) Each Mitzvah has a different gauge with regard to the starting age for a child. A father should give his son Tzitzis (i.e. a Talis Gadol) - as soon as he knows how to wrap himself in the Talis.

(b) As soon as his son reaches the stage where he is able ...

1. ... to lay Tefilin - his father should buy him Tefilin.
2. ... to speak - he should teach him the Pasuk "Torah Tzivah Lanu Moshe" and that of "Shema Yisrael".
(c) If he is old enough to guard himself from becoming Tamei, one need not worry about Tum'ah when his body touches Taharos. 'Lishmor Yadav' means - that even if the child *does* know how to guard his body from Tum'ah, he is still not trusted to keep his hands Tahor (i.e. one of the eighteen decrees of Beis Shamai in the first Perek of Shabbos - which renders hands Tamei the moment one does guard them from Tum'ah), until he knows how to guard them too, and to wash them whenever he wants to touch Taharos.

(d) The moment the child knows ...

1. ... whether he became Tamei or not (and is able to state when he doesn't know) - we will apply the principle 'Safek Tum'ah bi'Reshus ha'Yachid (and he says that he doesn't know) Tamei, bi'Reshus ha'Rabim, Tahor' (Otherwise, every Safek will be Tahor, even in the Reshus ha'Yachid - Tosfos DH 'ha'Yode'a Lisha'el').
2. ... how to Duchen (if he is a Kohen) - he becomes entitled to receive an independent portion of Terumah in the granary.



(a) The moment he knows how to Shecht, one may eat from his Shechitah. He does not necessarily need to be an expert in Hilchos Shechitah - and his Shechitah is only acceptable if a grown-up stood over him and watched how he Shechted from beginning to end (see also Tosfos DH 've'ha'Yode'a').

(b) The moment the child is able to eat a k'Zayis of wheat-bread (or any of the other five species of grain) - one must keep at least four Amos away from his feces, in order to recite the Shema or Daven the Amidah.

(c) He must be able to eat the k'Zayis of wheat-bread - within the time-span of a 'Kedei Achilas Peras' (i.e. a loaf of four k'Beitzim); otherwise, the mouthfuls that he swallows will not combine to form a k'Zayis.

(d) We learn from the Pasuk "ve'Yosif Da'as Yosif Mach'ov" - that, as a far as a grown-up is concerned, one must keep away from his feces, even if he cannot eat a k'Zayis of wheat-bread within a 'Kedei Achilas Peras.

(a) According to the Tana Kama - as soon as a child is able to eat a k'Zayis of roasted meat, he can be included in the group to eat the Korban Pesach.

(b) Rebbi Yehudah says - only when he is able to differentiate between what is edible and what is not (i.e. when he knows to throw away the pebbles and take the nuts).

***** Hadran Alach, Lulav ha'Gazul *****

***** Perek Lulav va'Aravah *****


(a) 'Lulav va'Aravah Shishah ve'Shiv'ah' - 'va'Aravah' refers to the Mitzvah of Aravah that was performed by the Kohanim in the Beis Hamikdash.

(b) We complete whole Hallel throughout Sukos, but not throughout Pesach - because the Korban Musaf differed on each day of Sukos, which is not the case on Pesach.

(c) The Mitzvah of Simchah applies all eight days - comprising eating meat from a Korban Shelamim.

(d) The Mitzvah of Sukah applies for seven days - and so does that of Nisuch ha'Mayim (although they are not necessarily the same set of seven days).

(a) The 'Chalil' refers to the flute (and the many other instruments) that were played during the Simchas Beis ha'Sho'eivah - and which will be discussed in the last Perek).

(b) It was played on *five* days - when Shabbos fell on Chol ha'Mo'ed (since the Isur of playing instruments over-rode neither Shabbos nor Yom-Tov), and on *six* - when Shabbos fell on Yom-Tov.

(c) Both the Lulav and the Aravah were sometimes taken *six* days and sometimes, *seven*.

1. The Lulav was taken *seven* days - when the *first* day of Yom-Tov fell on Shabbos, and *six* days - when Shabbos fell on Chol ha'Mo'ed.
2. The Aravah was taken *seven* days - when the *seventh* day of Yom-Tov fell on Shabbos, and *six* days - when Shabbos fell on any of the other days.
(a) When the first day of Yom-Tov fell on Shabbos, they would take their Lulavim to the Har ha'Bayis, and give them to the Shamashim - who would arrange them in the covered seating area there. The following morning, the Shamashim would throw them to the people, and everybody took one.

(b) They circumvented the problem of using someone else's Lulav on the first day - by teaching everyone to say that he gave his Lulav as a gift to whoever received it.

(c) To avoid the inevitable pushing - the elderly men would place their Lulavim in a designated room.

10) It was when people began snatching Lulavim from one another and even broke out into fights - that Chazal decreed that, when the first day fell on Sukos, they should rather take their Lulavim at home (and not take them to the Beis Hamikdash).

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