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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Sukah 41

SUKA 36-56 (End of Maseches) have been dedicated by the wife and daughters of the late Dr. Simcha Bekelnitzky (Simcha Gedalya ben Shraga Feibush) of Queens N.Y. Well known in the community for his Chesed and Tzedakah, he will long be remembered.



(a) According to Rav Ashi's initial statement, it is only by the *original* fruit that Rebbi Elazar argues with Rebbi Yochanan, but as far as the *second* fruit is concerned, even *he* concedes that one may even redeem it by way of *Chilul*. The Tana speaks about 'Lakach' even by the *second* and by the *third* fruit (rather than 'Chilel') - only because he had to do so by the *original* fruit.

(b) If someone wishes to purchase a shirt with a Sela of Shevi'is the problem that arises is - that the shirt will adopt Kedushas Shevi'is, and unlike food, that is soon eaten, it will normally survive the time of Bi'ur.

(c) So the Tana of another Beraisa suggests - that he contacts a storekeeper with whom he is acquainted (i.e. whom he can trust) and buys from him fruit with his Sela. Then he gives the fruit back to the storekeeper as a gift (who must treat it with Kedushas Shevi'is), and, in return, the storekeeper gives him back his Sela (which is now Chulin) as a gift.

(d) The fact that the Beraisa insists that he transfers the Kedushah of the Sela via a storekeeper, and not on his own fruit - proves that one may only transfer Shemitah fruit (even if it is *not* the *original* fruit) by way of purchasing, and not by way of Chilul. The Beraisa can only be speaking about the *second* fruit - since Sela'im do not grow on trees.

(a) According to Rav Ashi's re-worded statement - it is only by the *second* fruit that Rebbi Yochanan ben Zakai argues with Rebbi Elazar, but as far as the *first* fruit is concerned, even *he* concedes that it may not be redeemed by way of purchasing.

(b) When the Tana in the Beraisa that supports Rebbi Yochanan, speaks about transferring *Shevi'is* - he does not mean *first-hand* Shevi'is, but '*Demei* Shevi'is' (i.e. the goods with which he exchanged the Shevi'is).

(c) This *must* be so, maintains the Gemara, because, if the Tana was referring to the original Shevi'is and Ma'aser, how can one change Ma'aser Sheini for *other fruits*, when the Torah writes in Re'ei "ve'Tzarta *ha'Kesef* be'Yadecha".

(a) We learn from the Pasuk in Emor "u'Semachtem *Lifnei Hashem Elokeichem Shiv'as Yamim*" - that it is only in front of Hashem (in the Beis Hamikdash) that one takes Lulav for seven days, but not elsewhere.

(b) Raban Yochanan ben Zakai instituted - that one should take the Lulav seven days in Yerushalayim (according to the Rambam, 'Medinah' includes all other towns, too), in memory of the Beis Hamikdash.

(c) He also instituted that 'Yom Henef', forbidding Chadash the entire day of the sixteenth of Nisan, even though, min ha'Torah, it is really permitted (see 4b).

(d) We learn from the Pasuk in Yirmiyah that ends "Tzi'on Hi, Doresh Ein Lah" - that one ought to seek Tzi'on, by commemorating it.

(a) 'Chadash' - is the new crop that took root after the previous Omer was brought on the second day of Pesach.

(b) When there is no Beis Hamikdash, Chadash is permitted already from the morning of the sixteenth - because the Torah writes "Ad Etzem ha'Yom ha'Zeh", meaning as soon as day arrives (because we currently hold that "Ad" is *exclusive*).

(c) Raban Yochanan ben Zakai forbids it until the *seventeenth* - because he is concerned that people who are living when there is no Beis Hamikdash, might take their cue from there, and eat Chadash the next year too, already from dawn-break, even *after* the Beis Hamikdash has already been built.

(d) The problem with this - assuming the Beis Hamikdash will be built any time up to the fifteenth of Nisan - is that Raban Yochanan ben Zakai should then have only decreed until midday (since the Kohanim, who were quick, had always brought the Korban by then).

(a) So the Takanah is concerned that the Beis Hamikdash may be built on the night of the sixteenth of Nisan, which may neither be built on Yom-Tov, nor at night-time (see Tosfos DH 'I Nami') - provided it is built by man. But the third Beis Hamikdash will come down from Heaven, ready-built.

(b) And this is what sparks off Raban Yochanan ben Zakai's Takanah - because, seeing as the Beis Hamikdash will only so late, there will not be sufficient time to prepare the Omer (which requires many processes, including sifting it thirteen times), in which case, it will not be ready by midday of the sixteenth; so he forbade Chadash all day.




(a) Alternatively, Rebbi Yochanan ben Zakai holds like his grand-Talmid Rebbi Yehudah - who Darshens from the Pasuk in Emor "Ad Etzem ha'Yom ha'Zeh", to mean until the *end* of the sixteenth (because *he* explains "Ad" to be *inclusive*).

(b) In reality, Raban Yochanan ben Zakai himself holds like Rebbi Yehudah. Nevertheless, Rebbi Yehudah (in the Mishnah in Menachos) argued with him - because he misunderstood what he meant (according to this explanation). *He* thought (from the Lashon 've'Hiskin) that Raban Yochanan ben Zakai had introduced a *Rabbinical* institution, when in fact, he had Darshened it from exactly the same *Pasuk* as Rebbi Yehudah himself.

(c) The Mishnah in Menachos used the expression '*Hiskin* Raban Yochanan ben Zakai' - because until then, they used to eat Chadash from midday (on the assumption that the Omer had been brought by then). Now that the Beis Hamikdash was destroyed, it became necessary to publicize the Derashah of "Ad Etzem ha'Yom ha'Zeh", and, based on the Pasuk, to institute the prohibition of Chadash until night-time.

(a) When the first day of Sukos fell on Shabbos - they used to bring their Lulavim to Shul before Shabbos. The following morning, each person would recognize his own Lulav and take it.

(b) If Shabbos fell on any other day of Sukos - taking the Lulav did not override Shabbos.

(c) Rebbi Yossi says that someone who carried his Lulav into the street on the first day of Sukos that fell on Shabbos - is Patur from bringing a Chatas, because he had full authority to be busy with the Mitzvah.

(a) We learn that one cannot fulfill the Mitzvah of Lulav with someone else's Lulav on the first day of Sukos - from the Pasuk in Emor "u'Lekachtem *Lachem ba'Yom ha'Rishon*".

(b) And we learn from "u'Lekachtem" - that every individual is obligated to take the Lulav.

(a) Of the four Tana'im who were traveling together on the ship, only Raban Gamliel had a set of Arba Minim. The others were all Yotze with his set on the first day of Sukos - by means of a 'Matanah al Menas Lehachzir' - a temporary gift, given on the express condition that it is returned), which is considered a legal Matanah.

(b) The Beraisa needs to add that each of them returned it to Raban Gamliel - to teach us the principle of 'Matanah al Menas Lahachzir ... '.

(c) Rava adds to this - that if the recipient fails to return the Matanah, then it will turn out not to have been a Matanah at all (and, in the case of a Lulav, he will not have been Yotze).

(d) The Tana informs us that Raban Gamliel paid a thousand Zuz for his set - to teach us just how precious the Mitzvos were in the eyes of the Tana'im.

(a) During the Amidah, one is forbidden to hold ...
  1. ... a knife -because he will be afraid that the knife may fall and cut him (so he will be unable to concentrate properly).
  2. ... a dish of food - because he is afraid that it will spill.
  3. ... a loaf - which may fall and get spoiled.
  4. ... money - which may fall and roll away.
(b) Neither is one permitted to Daven the Amidah holding Tefilin or a Sefer- Torah - since here too, he will be afraid that they may fall.

(c) Ameimar was nevertheless perfectly justified in informing Rav Ashi that his father used to hold the Lulav during the Amidah - because, since he was performing a Mitzvah in the process, holding it was no longer a burden, because the joy of the Mitzvah would override the worry.

(a) When the men of Yerushalayim used left the house, went to Shul, or recited the Shema or the Amidah - they would hold the Lulav in their hand.

(b) They would also take their Lulav with them - when they went to visit the sick or to comfort the mourners.

(c) They would ...

1. ... put it on the floor - when they Leined in the Torah, or (if they were Kohanim) when they went up to Duchen.
2. ... send it home with a Sheli'ach - when they entered the Beis- Hamedrash to learn Torah.
(d) We learn from all this - how keen the men of Yerushalayim were to perform Mitzvos.
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