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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Sukah 32



(a) Rav Huna permits a split Lulav, provided the two sides of the slit are parallel - whereas the Beraisa, which invalidates it, speaks when the slit is open 'ke'Hemnek' (like an old-fashioned clothes-peg), where the ends curl outwards.

(b) A Lulav ...

  1. ... 'Kafuf' - is a Lulav whose top is bent (like a hook).
  2. ... 'Kavatz' - is one which has thorns growing out of its spine.
(c) An arched Lulav is Pasul if the spine bends outwards (i.e. away from the person who is holding it); it is Kasher, if it bends inwards - because that is the way it grows.
(a) In the winter, the leaves of the Lulav separate from the stem and become hard - that is called a Charusa and is Pasul; in the early stages, when they are only beginning to get hard - it only resembles a Charusa and is Kasher.

(b) Rava declares a Lulav whose leaves all grow from one side, Pasul - because it is blemished.

(c) Rav Papa describes 'Nifretzu Alav' (which our Mishnah invalidates) - as 'like a broom', because a broom is made of twigs that have broken off from the branch, in the same way as these leaves have broken off from the Lulav.

(a) Rav Papa asks whether a Lulav is Kasher, if the Tiyomes (the double middle-leaf) is split, including the spine down to the next leaves that branch off from it (see also Tosfos DH 'Nechlekah').

(b) Initially, we infer from Rav Masun quoting Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi (who invalidates a Lulav whose Tiyomes has been removed), that if it is split, it is Kasher. The second Lashon quotes him as saying - that if the Tiyomes is split, it is as if it was removed, and is Pasul.

(a) We know that "Kapos Temarim" does not mean ...
1. ... 'Charusa' (see 2a) - because it is not 'Kafus' (since, seeing as the branches that stick out from it are hard, it cannot be tied together).
2. ... 'Ufta' (the palm-leaf low down on the palm-tree, where it resembles a branch (a sort of stump) - because it is only one piece and there is nothing to tie together.
3. ... 'Kufra' (a young Charusa about one year old which is very spiky) - because it is not very pleasant (and the Pasuk in Mishlei writes "Deracheha Darchei No'am").
(b) "Kapos Temarim" cannot mean *two* bunches of dates - because the Torah writes "Kapos Temarim" without a 'Vav' (implying *one* branch, not *two*).

(c) Neither can it mean *one* bunch of dates - which the Torah would refer to as "Kaf", and not "Kapos".

(a) Tzinei Har ha'Barzel are Kasher when the top of the one leaf reaches the foot of the one above it - and are Pasul when it does not.

(b) Tzinei Har ha'Barzel are two date-palms which grow in the valley of Ben Hinom, and from between which smoke rises. It is the entrance to Gehinom.




(a) According to Rav Yehudah quoting Shmuel, the length of the Lulav must be at least four Tefachim, one Tefach more than that of the Hadas. Rebbi Parnach quoting Rebbi Yochanan says that the Shiur is up to the top of the spine (from which the middle leaf grows) and does not include the entire length of the middle leaf and the tops of the other leaves that grow beyond that point.

(b) Both opinions amend the Mishnah, to read '*Sheloshah* Tefachim *u*Kedei Lena'anei'a Bo' - and each one explains the Shiur of 'Ke'dei Lena'anei'a Bo', according to his way of understanding.

(c) Rebbi Parnach explains that, when the Beraisa gives the length of the Hadas and the Aravah as three Tefachim, and that of the *Lulav*, as *four* - it means apart from the leaves that protrude above the top of the spine.

(a) When Rebbi Tarfon commented on the Tana Kama's words in the above- mentioned Beraisa 'be'Amah bas Chamishah Tefachim - Rava thought that he was giving the measurement of a Hadas as one Amah consisting of *five* Tefachim. It is hard enough, asked Rava, to find Hadasim of *three* Tefachim (as the Tana of our Mishnah requires), so how can Rebbi Tarfon expect us to find Hadasim of *five*)?

(b) But Rav Dimi corrected him, to leave us with only a small Chumra; he explained Rebbi Tarfon to mean 'Amah bas *Shishah* Tefachim, Asei Osah bas *Chamishah*' - which means that he was only increasing the size of the regular Tefach (of which there are six to an Amah) to *one and a fifth Tefachim*, and the size of the Hadasim and the Aravos from *three* to *three and three fifth* Tefachim.

(c) The problem with this is that - since Shmuel rules like Rebbi Tarfon, he should not have then given the Shiur as *three* Tefachim, since it is a leniency, and people who go by it, will not have fulfilled the Mitzvah.

(a) Ravin therefore explained that what Rebbi Tarfon meant to say was - 'Amah bas *Chamishah* Tefachim, Asei Osah bas *Shishah*', meaning that he reduced the size of the Tefach to five sixths of a Tefach, and the size of the Hadasim and the Aravos from three to two and a half Tefachim.

(b) When Shmuel ruled like Rebbi Tarfon, and then gave the minimum size of the Hadasim and Aravos as *three* Tefachim - he was being stringent, which does not matter.

(a) Most of the Pesulim of the Lulav also apply to a Hadas - more berries than leaves is a Pesul unique to the Hadas.

(b) One may not reduce the number of berries on Yom-Tov (in order to render the Hadas Kasher) - because of 'Tikun Mana' (rectifying a vessel to make it fit for use).

(a) We learn from the Pasuk in Emor "Anaf Eitz Avos" - which is entirely 'Anaf' (meaning a twig covered with leaves) to include a Hadas among the four species.

(b) The Pasuk cannot be referring to ...

1. ... an olive tree, whose twigs are also covered with leaves - because it does not comply with the requirement "Avos" (meaning 'platted' - i.e. to grow in groups of three).
2. ... a chest-nut tree, whose leaves grow in groups of three, like a Hadas - because it does not comply with "Anaf".
3. ... a poisonous plant called 'Hirdof', which has both specifications; according to Abaye - because it has sharp ends, which prick the hands, and the Pasuk in Mishlei says "Deracheha Darchei No'am" (and it is not sweet to have one's hands pricked); according to Rava - it is because of the Pasuk in Zecharyah "ha'Emes ve'ha'Shalom Ahavu", and a poisonous plant like Hirduf does not have the connotations of truth and peace.
(c) The Tana Kama of a Beraisa compares the appearance of the leaves of the Hadas to a chain. Rebbi Eliezer ben Ya'akov learns a Hadas from the fact that the Torah uses the word "Anaf *Eitz* Avos", meaning part of a tree whose wood has the same taste as the fruit (i.e. the leaves).
(a) Rav Yehudah describes "Avos" as three leaves growing out from the same point of the stem; Rav Kahana says that - even if two of the three leaves grow from the same point and the third one, below, it is also Kasher.

(b) The moment Rav Acha the son of Rava, heard Rav Kahana's ruling - he always tried to obtain Hadasim where two of the three leaves grew from the same point and the third one, below.

(c) Mar the son of Ameimar commented to Rav Ashi - that his father tended to call a Hadas like that a 'Hadas Shoteh' (which is Pasul).

(d) The Beraisa rules that if most of the leaves of a Hadas fall out, it nevertheless remains Kasher, provided there are still three leaves that emerge from the same point. This is possible in the case of an Egyptian Hadas - where seven leaves grow from the same point of the stem, in which case, even if four fall out, three still remain.

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