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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Sukah 29



(a) Eating vessels says Rava, must be removed once one has finished with them - whereas drinking-vessels such as cups, may remain in the Sukah (because they do not tend to become quite so dirty).

(b) As for earthenware jars and wooden buckets - they should not be brought into the Sukah in the first place (because they are ugly and cheap-looking).

(c) Oil-lamps or Shabbos candles should be brought inside a large Sukah, but should remain outside a small one - because they may set the Sukah alight.

(a) If the rain is sufficiently heavy to spoil a bean-stew (which spoils easily) - one is permitted to leave the Sukah.

(b) When bits of S'chach began falling on to his food, Rav Yosef ordered his things to be moved into the house - but surely, asked Abaye, that is not as uncomfortable as rain falling into one's food, which is the minimum requirement for leaving the Sukah?

(c) Rav Yosef replied that he was finicky about such things - and that the Shiur Mitzta'er given by Chazal that applied to most people, did not to him.

(a) Assuming that he moved into the house to continue ...
1. ... *eating* - he must return to the Sukah only after he has concluded his meal.
2. ... sleeping, then he does not need to move back until a. he wakes up, *and* b., dawn breaks.
(b) 'Ad she'Ya'or' with an '*Ayin*' means - until he wakes up, and 'Ad she'Ya'or' with an '*Aleph*' - until the sun shines (we dismiss the latter from the Beraisa - because it clashes with dawn-break that is mentioned there - and re-place it with the former, to read 'Ad she'Ya'or ve'Ya'aleh Amud ha'Shachar'.

(c) Our Mishnah speaks about a slave diluting a cup of wine for his master, adding 'he spilt the jar of water'. If 'he' would refer to the slave - then the Mishnah would mean that he was clumsy and spilt the water that he was pouring into the wine to dilute.

(d) What the Mishnah really means - is that the master rejected his service and threw the water back at him (Note: the Gra explains that wine symbolizes Hashem's Midas ha'Din, and water, His Midas Rachamim. The parable teaches us that, when it rains on Sukos, Hashem does want to dilute His harsh judgment from Yom Kipur, but wants it to remain intact; so He rejects our Avodah on Sukos - by throwing rain at us, forcing us out of our Sukah, whose purpose is to sweeten the Midas ha'Din.)

(a) When the sun is smitten (i.e. when it changes color), then it is a bad omen for the world. The Beraisa compares it - to a King who placed a lantern in the banquet-hall, to illuminate the feast that he had arranged for his servants. When they caused him to become angry with them, he ordered the lantern to be removed.

(b) If the *luminaries* are smitten, says Rebbi Meir, it is particularly ominous for the Jewish people. The luminaries refers to the moon and the stars; it is a bad omen for the Jewish people - because they are the ones who throughout history, have suffered the most.

(c) He compares it to a teacher who entered the class-room with a strap. Which pupil is the one to be afraid? Is it not the one who receives lashes every day?

(d) Another Beraisa make a distinction between the smiting of the *sun* - which is a bad omen for the nations of the world (who count by the sun), and that of the *moon* - which is a bad omen for the Jewish people (who count by the moon).

(a) According to the Tana of the second Beraisa, the people of ...
1. ... the east would need to be afraid - if the sun was smitten in the morning (when it is in the east).
2. ... the west would need to be afraid - if the sun was smitten in the evening (when the sun is in the west)
3. ... the entire world - in the middle of the day (when the sun is in the middle of the sky).
(b) If the sun turns ...
  1. ... red - they must fear death by the sword.
  2. ... dark - they must fear death by starvation.
(c) According to the Tana Kama, if it is smitten as it ...
1. ... sets - it is a sign that the punishment will be delayed (just as the sun was only smitten at the end of the day).
2. ... rises - that it will descend upon them swiftly (just as it was smitten as soon as it rose).
(d) Yesh Omrim say the opposite (because at the end of the day there is little time left for it to shine, whereas at the beginning of the day, there is still a whole day ahead of it).
(a) We learn from the Pasuk in Bo "u've'Chol Elohei Mitzrayim E'eseh Shefatim ... " - that whenever a nation is smitten, its god is smitten too.

(b) According to this Tana - when the sun is smitten, as long as Yisrael are doing the will of Hashem, they have no reason to fear (as the Navi Yirmiyah says).

(a) In a third Beraisa, the Tana informs us that the sun is smitten for any one of four reasons: for that to happen ...
  1. ... an Av Beis-Din who died - would not have been properly eulogized.
  2. ... a betrothed girl - would have been raped in the city and nobody paid heed to her cries.
(b) The third reason is the sin of homosexuality - and the fourth, if two brothers were killed at one and the same time (though the significance of this is unclear).

(c) The moon and the stars too, are smitten for any one of four reasons: Because of people who forge documents, because of false witnesses - because of people who rear small animals in Eretz Yisrael (they destroy the land, because they cannot guard them against grazing in other peoples' fields), and because of people who cut down good fruit-trees.




(a) There are also four reasons for the fact that the property of wealthy Jews is confiscated by the government: Because they retained paid documents (i.e. they fail to destroy them), because they lent money on interest - because, due to their wealth, they had the authority to rebuke but failed to do so and because they undertook in public to give Tzedakah and then reneged on their promises.

(b) And there are four reasons for the fact that the property of wealthy Jews declines: Because they failed to pay their workers on time, because they did not pay them at all, because they placed their own obligations at the doors of others - and because of their conceit.

(c) The Pasuk in Tehilim writes that those who are humble - will inherit the land and will delight in an abundance of peace.

***** Hadran Alach, ha'Yashen ******

***** Perek Lulav ha'Gazul *****


(a) We learn from the Pasuk "u'Lekachtem Lachem ba'Yom ha'Rishon" - that, on the first day of Sukos, one is not Yotze with a stolen Lulav.

(b) A dry Lulav is Pasul - because it is not Hadar (which all of the species require, since they are all compared to Esrog).

(c) A Lulav that was picked from a tree that was worshipped and one that came from an Ir ha'Nidachas (a city that had to be destroyed because all its inhabitants worshipped idols) are Pasul - the latter, because it has to be burned, and, seeing as whatever has to be burned is considered as if it had already been burned, it does not have a Shiur.

(a) A Lulav whose top is cut off or whose leaves have been pulled loose and tied to the spine, is Pasul - because it is not Hadar.

(b) A Lulav whose leaves are loose but still attached to the spine is Kasher. Rebbi Yehudah says it must be tied.

(c) Tzinei Har ha'Barzel, too, are Kasher - these are Lulavim with very short leaves.

11) When he Mishnah validates a Lulav that is 'three Tefachim tall sufficient to shake it' - it means to say that it must be three Tefachim tall (corresponding to the size of the Hadas), plus an extra Tefach, the Shiur that needs to be shaken.


(a) On the *first* day of Sukos, one must own the Lulav that he is taking - but not on all the other days.

(b) The Chiyuv Lulav on the first day of Sukos (outside the Beis Hamikdash) is d'Oraysa - whereas on the other days, it is only mi'de'Rabbanan (in memory of the Beis Hamikdash).

(c) The Gemara took for granted that the Pesul of Yavesh should apply even on the other days of Sukos - in memory of the Beis Hamikdash (where it also applied); whereas the Pesul of Gazul (which we currently think is only Asur because it is not "Lachem"), which did not apply in the Beis Hamikdash - should not apply nowadays either.

(d) Rebbi Yochanan quoting Rebbi Shimon, explains that a stolen Lulav on the other days of Sukos is Pasul - because of 'Mitzvah ha'Ba'ah ba'Aveirah' (i.e. the Mitzvah came as a result of the Aveirah - see Tosfos DH 'Mishum').

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