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by Rabbi Ephraim Becker
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld

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Sukah 22

SUKAH 21-25 - my brother Ari Kornfeld has generously sponsored one month of Dafyomi publications for the benefit of Klal Yisrael


(a) A Sukah Meduvleles (to be explained) and/or whose shade is greater than its sun is/are Kesheirah.
(b) If the S'chach is very thick (even though stars cannot be seen from within) the Sukah is Kesheirah.
(a) Question: What is Meduvleles?
(b) Answer (Rav): A 'poor' Sukah (thin S'chach).
(c) Answer (Shmuel): One whose S'chach is 'mixed,' laid one piece high and one low.
(d) Rav taught 1.a. (above) as one case (it is Kosher even though it is thin provided that its shade exceeds its light).
(e) Shmuel taught it as two cases (mixed as one Kosher case; shade exceeding light as a second Kosher case).
(a) (Abaye) The Heter of Shmuel only applies if the higher and lower pieces are not separated by three Tefachim.
(b) (Rava) The Heter applies even if they are three Tefachim apart, provided that each plank is a Tefach wide.
1. If less, then they need to be within three Tefachim of one another.
2. This Heter is based on the principle of Chavut Rami.
(c) (Rava) My source for limiting Chavut Rami to a board whose width is one Tefach is the Mishnah in Ohalos and the Beraisa taught regarding that Mishnah.
1. The Mishnah provides the Halachah in every permutation where a two-story structure has beams in the ceiling of each story.
2. Tumah is either allowed to flow upward or is blocked by the Ohel created by the boards.
3. If the boards of the two stories are aligned with one another, then Tumah rises unimpeded; if the upper boards are above the spaces between the lower boards, then Tumah anywhere in the building is trapped as though it were all one room.
4. The Beraisa qualifies the Mishnah as applying when the boards and the spaces between them are a Tefach wide, in order to allow for Chavut Rami.
(d) Question (R. Ashi of R. Kehana who had just reported Rava's assertion): But we see in the Beraisa that there is Chavut Rami even with less than a Tefach width!?
1. The Beraisa permits incomplete Koros at the entrance to a Mavui with three (or, according to R. Shimon b. Gamliel, four) Tefachim of space in between.

2. Twin Koros, each less than the minimum Tefach width, may be combined.
3. R. Shimon b. Gamliel permits a space between the two twin Koros, provided they are strong enough to hold an Ariach (half-brick).
4. If the two twin Koros were at a different height, then R. Yosi b.R. Yehudah teaches that we view them as at the same height, provided that the upper Korah is not above 20 Amos, and the lower one is not below 10 Tefachim.
5. It would thus appear that we are permitting Koros of less than a Tefach to combine through Chavut Rami!
(e) Answer (R. Kehana): The Koros must be within three Tefachim of one another (using Lavud, since we do not say Chavut Rami with such narrow boards), and the Beraisa is only reminding us of the minimum and maximum permitted height for Koros.
(a) Question: Our Mishnah implies that were the shade and light to be equal, the Sukah is Pesulah, while the earlier Mishnah implies that equal shade and light is Kesheirah!?
(b) Answer: It is Pesulah if equal at the S'chach level and Kesheirah if it is equal at the ground-shade level (since the shade must be greater at the S'chach level).
(a) A Sukah is still Kesheirah even if the stars are not visible.
(b) If sunlight does not penetrate the S'chach it is Pasul according to Beis Shamai and Kosher according to Beis Hillel.
(a) A Sukah built on a wagon or boat is Kesheirah.
(b) On a tree or a camel is Kesheirah, but may not be entered on YomTov.
(c) If one or more of its walls are in the tree, even if the second or third are on the ground, it is viewed as in the tree and may not be entered on YomTov.
(d) If three walls are on the ground we are not concerned if the fourth wall is supported by the tree.
(e) The Sukah is tested by checking if it could stand without the tree.
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