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Sukah 48

SUKA 36-56 (End of Maseches) have been dedicated by the wife and daughters of the late Dr. Simcha Bekelnitzky (Simcha Gedalya ben Shraga Feibush) of Queens N.Y. Well known in the community for his Chesed and Tzedakah, he will long be remembered.

1) [line 1] PaZaR KaSHeV These words are a mnemonic device listing six ways in which Shemini Atzeres is a distinct festival and not just a continuation of Sukos: 1. Payis; 2. Zeman; 3. Regel; 4. Korban; 5. Shir; 6. Berachah

1. PAYIS - on Shemini Atzeres, a *lottery* was cast to determine who would offer the 10 animals (one ox, one ram, one he-goat and seven sheep) of the Korban Musaf. On Sukos, the Kohanim used a rotation system among the Mishmaros to determine who would offer the seventy oxen, fourteen rams, seven he-goats and ninety-eight sheep that were brought during the seven days of Sukos (Sukah 5:6)
2. ZEMAN - the blessing of "Shehechiyanu ... l'*Zeman* ha'Zeh" is said on Shemini Atzeres (unlike the seventh day of Pesach on which it is not said even though it is also a Yom Tov)
3. REGEL - (a) it is a distinct *festival* in that we do not sit in the Sukah (RASHI); (b) it is a distinct *festival*, and is not called one of the days of Sukos (RASHI to Yoma 3a); (c) as in other *festivals* at the time of the Beis ha'Mikdash, one must stay overnight (Linah) in Yerushalayim on the night after the festival (RABEINU TAM)
4. KORBAN - the *Korban Musaf* on Shemini Atzeres was different from the Korban Musaf of the rest of Sukos; the oxen offered as Olos on Sukos decreased from thirteen on the first day to seven on the seventh day. Each day two rams, one he-goat and fourteen sheep were offered whereas on Shemini Atzeres the Korban Musaf was one ox, one ram, one he-goat and seven sheep
5. SHIR - The Leviyim *sang chapters of Tehilim* while the Nesachim of a Korban Tzibur were being brought. They sang the same verses of Tehilim that we recite daily as the Shir Shel Yom (Tamid 6:7). On Mo'adim, special Chapters of Tehilim were substituted instead of these (Maseches Sofrim 18:2- 3, 19:2). They also played musical instruments to accompany the singing. On Sukos, the songs referred to the harvest and to the gifts given to the poor; the song of Shemini Atzeres was of a different nature
6. BERACHAH - (a) a *blessing* was said for the king on Shemini Atzeres (Tosefta Sukah 4:10); (b) the *blessing* that is used during Tefilah and Birchas ha'Mazon on Shemini Atzeres contains the words "b'Yom ha'Shemini, Chag ha'Atzeres ha'Zeh," and not "b'Yom ha'Sukos ha'Zeh" (RASHI)
2) [line 4] SIMCHAH (a) The Mitzvah of Simchah (Devarim 27:7) that applies on the three Holidays of Pesach, Shavu'os and Sukos requires a person to eat from sacrifices every day of the holiday. If no other sacrifice is available, the person brings a special Korban, known as Shalmei Simchah, for the purpose of fulfilling this Mitzvah. Women are also obligated in this Mitzvah (RAMBAM Hilchos Chagigah 1:1).
(b) Besides offering extra Korbanos, the Mitzvah of Simchah also requires that all of the Jews be happy on the holidays. Buying food and clothing that cause one to be happy, each person according to his taste, fulfills this Mitzvah. One must also remember to support the poor and downtrodden on Yom Tov, for if one spends one's time eating and drinking without helping the poor, it is not considered a Simchah Shel Mitzvah; rather, it is Simchas Kreiso (a feast for one's stomach) (RAMBAM Hilchos Yom Tov 6:17-18)

3) [line 21] POCHES BAH ARBA'AH - [a person] removes four [Tefachim of Sechach, thereby invalidating his Sukah]

4) [line 24] MANEI MEICHLA - (a) dirty dishes (RASHI, cited by TOSFOS 29a DH Mana); (b) pots, pans, kneading troughs, spits, etc. (TOSFOS ibid.)

5) [line 25] METALALTA - the Sukah
6) [line 27] TZELOCHIS - a flask
7) [line 28] SHILO'ACH - the Shilo'ach spring (also known as Gichon) that is located to the south of the Temple Mount from which the water for the Nisuch ha'Mayim on Sukos was drawn.

8) [line 28] SHA'AR HA'MAYIM - The Water Gate, opposite the Mizbe'ach, that was opened only once during the year. The procession carrying the water for the Nisuch ha'Mayim passed through this gate on Sukos. The stream called the Amah, that passed through the Azarah, flowed out through this gate.

9) [line 30] SEFALIM - the silver libation pipes located in the southwest Keren (corner) of the Mizbe'ach

10) [line 31] SID - lime or plaster


11) [line 1] SHNEI CHOTMIN DAKIN - two protrusions at the bottom of the Sefalim that contained drainage holes through which the Nesachim fell from the Sefalim onto the roof of the Mizbe'ach

12) [line 1] ME'UVAH - [had a] thick [drainage hole]
13) [line 11] KIYOR - the water basin for washing the hands and feet of the Kohanim (Shemos 30:17-21). It had 12 faucets and was attached to a pulley that lowered it into a well of water. (The Ritva to 49b claims that it was lowered into the Yam she'Asa Shelomo every night -- see Insights to Sukah 48:3)

*14*) [line 14] HANAHU TREI MINEI - (this story about two Minim is brought down here because the Mishnah mentioned that the [Minim and] Tzedukim did not believe in the practice of Nisuch ha'Mayim. The Gemara here recounts what ridiculously foolish interpretations the Minim would attribute to verses from the Torah. (MAHARSHA -- see also Insights)

15a) [line 19] CHAD YOMA SHAVKUCH - one day you will be ousted [by Heavenly forces]
b) [line 19] V'SHAVYACH PARVANKA - and will be made a runner [to show the way]

16) [line 20] "KI V'SIMCHAH SETZE'U ..." - "For in gladness shall you go out..." (Yeshayah 55:12) - The Min interpreted the word "Simchah" as referring to his friend.

17) [line 21] U'MALU VACH MAYA - and you will be used to fill up water
18) [line 23] ASIDISU D'TIMLU LI MAYIM - in the future you will pour water for me
19) [line 26] MASHCHEI DEHA'HU GAVRA - the skin of that person (you)
20) [line 27] GUDA - a leather bottle
21) [line 31] CHOZRIN AL HA'AKEV - and they go back the way they came

22) [line 31] OLAS HA'OF
The offering of the Olas Ha'of consists of four procedures:

(a) MELIKAH - On the Sovev (see Background to Yoma 22:13) of the Mizbe'ach, on the *southeastern* corner, the Kohen cuts the back of the neck of the bird with his right thumbnail, making sure to cut both Simanim (the trachea and the esophagus). (If the southeastern corner of the Sovev is crowded with Kohanim offering the Olas ha'Of, then the additional Olas ha'Of Korbanos are offered on the southwestern corner of the Mizbe'ach.)
(b) MITZUY - The Kohen presses the cut part of the head and body of the bird onto the wall of the Mizbe'ach, above the Chut ha'Sikra (red line) that is located halfway up the Mizbe'ach.
(c) HAKTARAS HA'ROSH - The Kohen salts the head and throws it into the fire on the Mizbe'ach.
(d) HAKTARAS HA'GUF - The Kohen cuts out the crop and surrounding feathers of the bird (or, according to some Tana'im, the crop and the intestines -- Zevachim 65a) and throws them to the ash-pile at the side of the ramp of the Mizbe'ach. He then tears the bird apart (Shesiya), salts it, and throws it into the fire.
23a) [line 36] SAMICH - viscous
b) [line 37] KALISH - thin
24) [line 38] KASVA'OS - bowls
25a) [line 39] PIHA - its mouth
b) [line 39] RACHAV - wide
c) [line 39] KATZAR - narrow (Rashi explains that the difference between Rachav and Katzar is greater than the difference between Me'uvah and Dak)

26) [line 41] BUL - a lump

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