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Sukah 39

SUKA 36-56 (End of Maseches) have been dedicated by the wife and daughters of the late Dr. Simcha Bekelnitzky (Simcha Gedalya ben Shraga Feibush) of Queens N.Y. Well known in the community for his Chesed and Tzedakah, he will long be remembered.

1) [line 1] MOSHE, SHAPIR KA'AMART?! - Leader of (or the Greatest Sage of) the Generation, is what you are saying correct?

2) [line 1] ASUKEI MILSA HI - it is the conclusion of what he started saying
3) [line 7] KOFEL BAH DEVARIM - he would say the verses of Tehilim from "Ana HaSh-m onwards" (118:25-29) twice each during his recitation of Halel

4) [line 8] MOSIF BAH DEVARIM - he added verses to the verses that Rebbi repeated -- he would also repeat the words of the four Pesukim "Odecha Ki Anisani", "Even Ma'asu", "Me'es" and "Zeh ha'Yom" (118:21-24)

5) [line 13] OVER L'ASIYASAN - before he performs them
6) [line 15] "VA'YARATZ .." - "Then Achima'atz ran by the way of the plain, and overtook the Kushi." (Shmuel II 18:23)

7) [line 19] SHEVI'IS
The Torah requires that farmers desist from working the land every seventh year, as described in Vayikra 25:1-7. The fruits that grow during the seventh (Shevi'is) year are holy to the extent that 1. they must be considered ownerless; anyone may come into any field and pick the fruit that he intends to eat. 2. The fruits may not be bought and sold in a normal fashion (see Insights). 3. The Torah requires that the fruits of Shevi'is be used only for eating or drinking (in the normal manner of eating for that type of fruit) or for burning to provide light (in the case of oil). They may not be wasted or used for medicinal purposes or animal fodder, etc.

8) [line 22] MAVLI'A LEI DEMEI ESROG B'LULAV - he includes the value of the Esrog in the price of the Lulav


9) [line 2] MESHUMAR - a field that was guarded during Shevi'is
10) [line 3] CHATZI ISAR - half of an Isar, a minimal amount (1 Isar = 6-8 Prutah - based on Kidushin 12a)

11a) [line 4] PIGAM - (O.F. rude) the herb rue
b) [line 5] YARBUZIN (O.F. hanfers, oiseles) sorrel, a kind of sour-leafed plant found growing in meadows; strawberry-blight (alt. asparagus)
c) [line 5] SHITIM - (O.F. esparges) asparagus
d) [line 5] CHALAGLAGOS - (O.F. polpier) the purslane plant

12a) [line 5] KUSBAR - (O.F. allendre) coriander
b) [line 6] KARPAS - (O.F. cresson) cress; alt. (O.F. apie) smallage, wild celery (that grows in river beds)
c) [line 6] GARGIR - (O.F. orugue) Eruca sativa, the rocket plant, a medicinal plant that is beneficial for the eyes that grows in meadows; meadow-grass
d) [line] SHEL AFAR - that grows in a meadow

(a) After a crop is harvested and brought to the owner's house or yard, he must separate Terumah from the crop and give it to a Kohen. Although the Torah does not specify the amount to be given, the Rabanan set the requirement at one fiftieth of the total crop.
(b) After Terumah is removed from the produce, the first tithe to be given every year is called Ma'aser Rishon; one tenth of the produce must be given to a Levi.
(c) A second tithe is given every year after Ma'aser Rishon has been separated. The tithe that is separated in the third and sixth years of the 7-year Shemitah cycle is called Ma'aser Ani and is given to the poor.
(d) The tithe that is separated during the first, second, fourth and fifth years is called *Ma'aser Sheni*. The Torah requires that Ma'aser Sheni be brought and eaten by its owner in Yerushalayim.
(e) Alternatively, Ma'aser Sheni produce may be redeemed, in which case the money used to redeem it is brought to Yerushalayim. If the owner himself redeems the produce, he must add an additional *fifth* (of the ensuing total, or a *quarter* of the original value). The food that is bought with this money in Yerushalayim becomes Kodesh like Ma'aser Sheni and must be eaten b'Taharah. Ma'aser Sheni that was redeemed by anyone besides the owner is exempt from the additional fifth.

14) [line 9] BI'CHDEI MAN SHANO - this Mishnah (Shevi'is 9:1) only teaches that these plants may be bought during Shevi'is in the amount needed for a person's food for one day
15) [line 16] CHANATAH - budding

16) [last line] ORLAH
(a) In the first three years after a fruit tree is planted, its fruits are called Orlah and are Asurim b'Hana'ah, as it states in Vayikra 19:23.
(b) If a person eats a k'Zayis of Orlah fruit, he receives Malkos. If he derives benefit from Orlah (or any other food that is Asur b'Hana'ah), according to most Rishonim he is punished with Malkos (TOSFOS Chulin 120a DH Ela), while according to others, he is only punished with Makas Mardus (a Rabbinic institution of Malkos). (RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'achalos Asuros 8:16 -- see also Mishneh l'Melech to Yesodei ha'Torah 5:8)

17) [last line] NETA REVA'I
(a) In the first three years after a tree is planted, its fruits are called Orlah and are Asurim b'Hana'ah, as it states in Vayikra 19:23. The fruits of the fourth year are called Neta Reva'i and are Kodesh (holy) (ibid. 19:24). They must be brought to and eaten b'Taharah in Yerushalayim. Alternatively, the fruits may be redeemed (Pidyon), in which case the money used to redeem them is brought to Yerushalayim. The food that is bought with this money is Kodesh like Neta Reva'i and must be eaten b'Taharah in Yerushalayim.
(b) The Gemara records an argument as to whether the laws of Neta Reva'i apply to all fruits or only to grapes (Kerem Reva'i). The Halachah in Eretz Yisrael follows the opinion that the laws of Neta Reva'i apply to all fruits (SHULCHAN ARUCH Yoreh De'ah 294:6).
(c) With regard to fruits that grew outside of Eretz Yisrael, there are three opinions: 1. RABEINU YONAH to Berachos 35a, quoting RI HA'ZAKEN, states that they have the same Halachah as fruits in Eretz Yisrael, and require Pidyon; 2. The RAMBAM (Hilchos Ma'achalos Asuros 10:15) rules that they do not require Pidyon; 3. GE'ONIM, TOSFOS Berachos 35a DH u'Leman and ROSH to Berachos 35a explain that the rule, "the Halachah in Chutz la'Aretz follows the opinion of those who hold the lenient opinion in Eretz Yisrael" applies to Neta Reva'i. The lenient opinion is Kerem Reva'i, where the laws of Kedushah and Pidyon apply only to grapes. Accordingly, only fourth-year *grapes* need Pidyon.
(d) The SHACH (Yoreh De'ah 294:17) concludes that *all* fourth-year fruits of Chutz la'Aretz should be redeemed without a Berachah in Chutz la'Aretz. The Vilna Ga'on (ibid. 294:28) rules like the third opinion, 3., in which case only grapes need Pidyon in Chutz la'Aretz, and a Berachah is recited on their Pidyon.

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