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Sukah 34

1) [line 4] ESER NETI'OS
(a) The Torah requires that farmers desist from working the land every seventh year, as described in Vayikra 25:1-7. The fruits that grow during the seventh (Shevi'is) year are holy to the extent that 1. they must be considered ownerless; anyone may come into any field and pick the fruit that he intends to eat. 2. The fruits may not be bought and sold in a normal fashion. 3. The Torah requires that the fruits of Shevi'is be eaten only in the normal manner of eating each type of fruit.
(b) Chazal learn from the verse, "be'Charish uva'Katzir Tishbos," (Shemos 34:21) that the prohibition mid'Oraisa against plowing the land during Shemitah starts one month before the actual Shemitah year (Tosefes Shevi'is). This applies both to fields and orchards with grown trees. The Rabanan added to this prohibition and prohibited plowing a field from the Pesach before Shemitah and an orchard with grown trees from the Shavu'os before Shemitah.
(c) Eser Neti'os is a Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai concerning ten *saplings* that are planted with equidistant spacing in an area of a Beis Se'ah (fifty square Amos). One is permitted to plow such saplings right up to Rosh Hashanah of the Shemitah year, in spite of the Mitzvah of Tosefes Shevi'is. If there are less than ten saplings in this area or they are not planted as above, it is only permitted to plow under and around each tree up to the Shemitah year, but not the entire orchard (Shevi'is 1:6).

2) [line 4] ARAVAH
(a) On the first six days of Sukos (except Shabbos), very long willow branches were cut in Motza, near Yerushalayim, and brought to the Beis ha'Mikdash. These branches were placed standing alongside the Mizbe'ach, with their tops leaning over the Mizbe'ach. The Kohanim circled the Mizbe'ach once, reciting certain prayers. (According to one opinion (Sukah 43b), they circled the Mizbe'ach carrying these branches.)
(b) On Hoshana Rabah, the seventh day of Sukos, the Kohanim circled the Mizbe'ach seven times, amidst extensive prayers for spiritual growth, salvation and bountiful crops. If Hoshana Rabah fell on Shabbos, the willow branches that were used in the ceremony were cut before Shabbos (Sukah 45a, RAMBAM Hilchos Lulav 7:20-21).

3) [line 4] NISUCH HA'MAYIM
One of the Mitzvos of the festival of Sukos in the Beis a'Mikdash is the Nisuch ha'Mayim (water libation that is offered on the Mizbe'ach). Three Lugim (approx. 1.5 liter) of water are drawn from the Shilo'ach spring that is located to the south of the Temple Mount. The water is brought to the Azarah in a joyous procession, to fulfill the verse, "u'Sh'avtem Mayim b'Sason ..." ("and you shall draw water with rejoicing ..." - Yeshayah 12:3). The Kohen who is chosen to pour the water ascends the Mizbe'ach and pours the water from a golden flask into one of the Sefalim (the silver libation pipes located in the southwest corner of the Mizbe'ach). This takes place each day of Sukos at the time of the morning Tamid sacrifice, amidst much rejoicing.

4) [line 7] "...KACH AL MAYIM RABIM, TZAFTZAFAH SAMO." - "...he (the eagle mentioned in verse 3) took [the seed to a place] near abundant waters; he set it up to be [as lush as] a mountain willow." (Yechezkel 17:5) - The Gemara interprets this verse to mean that HaSh-m, the "eagle" of the parable, intended to plant the seed of the Jewish people in the land of Israel as an Aravah. The symbolism suggests that even though there were Jews who did not fulfill their tasks with regard to Torah and Mitzvos, they were nevertheless "fit for use," like an Aravah, since they are associated with the rest of the Jewish people. The rebellious Jews, however, set *themselves* up as a Tzaftzafah which is not fit for use in a Lulav at all.

5) [line 21] PI'AH CHALAK - the edges of its leaves are smooth

6a) [line 23] DOMEH L'MAGAL - serrated like a sickle, the teeth of which all point toward the handle. The teeth of the Chilfa Gila all point toward the stem of the leaves
b) [line 23] DOMEH L'MASAR - serrated like a saw (O.F. serre - saw), the teeth of which are all perpendicular to the saw and have a projection on both sides of each tooth. If the Chilfa Gila has teeth like a saw, it is unfit for use in the Lulav

7) [line 25] CHILFA GILA - a species of willow with leaves that are serrated like a sickle, that is fit for use in the Lulav

8) [line 27] SHEM LEVAI - a qualifying title added to its name

9a) [line 30] CHALAFTA ARAVTA...
The statements of Rav Chisda, Abaye and Rava that follow illustrate mistakes that were made at their time by some unlearned people. Today, these mistakes have all been corrected (ME'IRI).

b) [line 30] CHALAFTA ARAVTA - what was called at the time of the Beis ha'Mikdash Chalafta (Aramaic for Tzaftzafah, a type of willow with rounded leaves and a white stem that is not fit for use in the Lulav) is now called Aravta (Aravah)
c) [line 9] ARAVTA CHALAFTA - what was called at the time of the Beis ha'Mikdash Aravta (Aramaic for Aravah, a willow that is fit for use in the Lulav) is now called Chalafta (Tzaftzafah)
d) [line 32] SHIFORA CHATZOTZARTA - what was called at the time of the Beis ha'Mikdash Shifora (Shofar) is now called Chatzotzarta (trumpet)
e) [line 32] CHATZOTZARTA SHIFORA - what was called at the time of the Beis ha'Mikdash Chatzotzarta (trumpet) is now called Shifora (Shofar)
f) [line 33] PESORTA PESORA - what was called at the time of the Beis ha'Mikdash Pesortah (a small table) is now called Pesora (a large table)
g) [line 36] BEI KASEI HUVLILA - The four stomachs of ruminants are: (a) Keres (rumen); (b) Beis ha'Kosos (recticulum); (c) Hemses (omasum); (d) Kevah (abomasum). What was called at the time of the Beis ha'Mikdash Beis ha'Kosos (the *second* stomach) is now called Huvlila (or Hemses, the correct name for the *third* stomach of ruminants). The second stomach has a very thick, double wall, while the third stomach has a thin wall.
h) [last line] BAVEL BURSIF - the area which used to be called Bavel is now called Bursif


10) [line 3] KETUMIM - (a) the tops of the Hadasim are cut off (RASHI); (b) the side branches of the Hadasim are cut off (RA'AVAD, BA'AL HA'ME'OR, cited in the KORBAN NESANEL 14:300)

11) [line 23] ASHVU V'ZAVINU - do not raise the price of Hadasim higher than their value

*12*) [line 24] V'LIDROSH LEHU K'REBBI AKIVA D'MEIKEL TEFEI - that is, if Shmuel was just trying to scare them, let him scare them even more by threatening to rule like Rebbi Akiva? It must be that he was mentioned Rebbi Tarfon because he actually holds that the Halachah is like Rebbi Tarfon, and he was not just trying to scare them. The Gemara then retorts that Shmuel perhaps *did* just intend to scare them. However, he succeeded in scaring them more by threatening to rule like Rebbi Tarfon than he would have scared them had he threatened to rule like Rebbi Akiva, since non-Katum Hadasim are very hard to find (TOSFOS DH v'Lidrosh)

13) [line 28] ORLAH
(a) In the first three years after a fruit tree is planted, its fruits are called Orlah and are Asurim b'Hana'ah, as it states in Vayikra 19:23.
(b) If a person eats a k'Zayis of Orlah fruit, he receives Malkos. If he derives benefit from Orlah (or any other food that is Asur b'Hana'ah), according to most Rishonim he is punished with Malkos (TOSFOS Chulin 120a DH Ela), while according to others, he is only punished with Makas Mardus (a Rabbinic institution of Malkos). (RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'achalos Asuros 8:16 -- see also Mishneh l'Melech to Yesodei ha'Torah 5:8)

14) [line 30] DEMAI
(a) Produce bought from an Am ha'Aretz (an unlearned Jew who is lax in his Torah-observance - see Berachos 47b) is referred to as Demai ("Da Mai?" = "what is this?").
(b) Terumas Ma'aser, and Ma'aser Sheni must be separated from this produce since a minority of Amei ha'Aretz cannot be trusted to have separated them before selling it. Terumah Gedolah, however, (because of its stringency) is presumed to have been separated. Ma'aser Rishon and Ma'aser Ani are separated from the produce, but eaten by the owner (in keeping with the principle "ha'Motzi me'Chaveiro Alav ha'Re'ayah").

15) [line 31] MA'ASER SHENI
(a) After a crop is harvested and brought to the owner's house or yard, he must separate Terumah from the crop and give it to a Kohen. Although the Torah does not specify the amount to be given, the Rabanan set the requirement at one fiftieth of the total crop.
(b) After Terumah is removed from the produce, the first tithe to be given every year is called Ma'aser Rishon; one tenth of the produce must be given to a Levi.
(c) A second tithe is given every year after Ma'aser Rishon has been separated. The tithe that is separated in the third and sixth years of the 7-year Shemitah cycle is called Ma'aser Ani and is given to the poor.
(d) The tithe that is separated during the first, second, fourth and fifth years is called *Ma'aser Sheni*. The Torah requires that Ma'aser Sheni be brought and eaten by its owner in Yerushalayim.
(e) Alternatively, Ma'aser Sheni produce may be redeemed, in which case the money used to redeem it is brought to Yerushalayim. If the owner himself redeems the produce, he must add an additional *fifth* (of the ensuing total, or a *quarter* of the original value). The food which is bought with that money in Yerushalayim becomes Kodesh like Ma'aser Sheni and must be eaten b'Taharah. Ma'aser Sheni that was redeemed by anyone besides the owner is exempt from the fifth.

16) [line 32] CHAZAZIS - blisters, lichen (a coetaneous disease connected with desquamation and sometimes ulceration)

17) [line 33] PITMASO - its Pitam, a protuberance on the blossom-end of the Esrog having the appearance of a pestle

18) [line 33] NIKLAF - if it was peeled
19) [line 33] NISDAK - if it was cracked
20) [line 35] UKTZO - its stem
21) [line 36] ESROG HA'KUSHI - a black Esrog that comes from Kush. Kush may be either Ethiopia or an area near India called Hindakush

22) [line 36] HA'YAROK K'KARTEI - as green as dark green leeks

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