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Sukah 31

1) [line 1] HOSHANA - a term used to refer to any of the three species (Lulav, Hadasim, Aravos) or to all of them once they have been bound together (RASHI 31a DH Ein Ogdin); in this case it refers to the Hadas

2) [line 4] BESHE'TOKEF - when one seizes, overpowers
3) [line 17] TZAVCHAH, V'LO ASHGACH BAH RAV NACHMAN - she screamed, but Rav Nachman paid no attention to her

4) [line 20] TZAVCHA KAMAICHU, V'LO ASHGECHISU BAH? - screams before you, and you pay no attention to her?

5) [line 21] PA'AISA HI DA - this is one noisy, vociferous woman
6) [line 22] KESHURA D'METALALTA - beam of a Sukah

7) [line 24] TAKANAS MARISH (the Ordinance of the Beam)
(a) According to Torah law, a person must return the exact item that he stole if it is still in its original state, or its value if it is not, as it states, "v'Heishiv Es ha'Gezeilah Asher Gazal," - "he shall return the stolen object that he stole" (Vayikra 5:23).
(b) If a beam has been built into a building, although it has not been changed from its original state, the Chachamim instituted that the thief need not return the beam itself. He may return its value instead. The reason this was instituted was so that it is not unnecessarily difficult for him to repent and change his ways. This is referred to as "Takanas ha'Shavin," ("the Ordinance of the Penitents").

8) [line 26] B'GO SHIV'AH - during the seven days of Sukos
9) [line 27] CHIBRO B'TINA - he attached it with mud, clay
10a) [line 37] "KAPOS TEMARIM" - "the branches of date palms" (Vayikra 23:40)
b) [line 37] KAFUS - bound
11) [line 41] SIV - the fibrous substance just under the surface of the date palm
12) [line 42] IKARA D'DIKLA - the bark at the base of the date palm
13) [line 48] PARISH - (O.F. codoinz) a quince
14) [line 49] KEMUSHIN - (O.F. flacedes) withered


15) [line 1] BENEI KERAKIN - city-dwellers
16a) [line 12] D'NAFIK CHURVA MINEI - a serious error will come about because of this practice
b) [line 13] D'ASI L'MISRACH - since people may make a habit of it (and use them even when they can obtain an Esrog -- ROSH)

17) [line 15] HA'YAROK K'KARTI - one that is green like leeks (O.F. porels)
18) [line 17] D'LO GAMAR PEIRA - the fruit has not completely ripened

19a) [line 24] V'ASI L'APUCHINHU - and he will switch them (in order to hold each in the correct hand)
b) [line] V'ASI L'IFSULEI - and it (the Esrog) may become Pasul (if he drops it when he holds both the Lulav and Esrog in the same hand while trying to switch them)

20) [line 25] HA'DAR B'ILANO MI'SHANAH L'SHANAH - [a fruit] that stays on its tree from year to year; i.e. the Esrog

21) [line 27] B'ASHEIRAH D'MOSHE - (a) an Asheirah (see Background to Sukah 29:25) that was in Eretz Yisrael when conquered by Benei Yisrael (RASHI); (b) an Asheirah that belonged to a Jew (TOSFOS); (c) an Asheirah that was planted to be an Asheirah (RAMBAM, cited by RABEINU AVRAHAM MIN HA'HAR)

22) [line 27] D'KETUTEI MICHTAS SHI'UREI (The obligation to destroy it gives it a status of already having being destroyed. Consequently, it does not have the proper size, because it is considered as crushed to powder)
(a) Many Mitzvos of the Torah require a specified amount of a certain item, such as a k'Zayis for the Mitzvah of eating Matzah, four Tefachim for the Mitzvah of Lulav, etc.
(b) When there is a Mitzvah to burn a certain object, that object is considered already burned and reduced to ashes. We look upon it as separate particles of ash that happen to be stuck together. As such, we do not use it for any Mitzvah that has a size requirement, since it is considered as having infinitesimally small particles.
(c) The Rishonim argue as to the broadly this rule is applied:

1. Some contend that it applies to all Isurei Hana'ah (objects from which it is forbidden to derive benefit)
2. Others maintain that it only applies to those items that are burned (i.e. those items which may not be simply buried or otherwise obliterated)
3. Another opinion is that it applies only to items that there is a positive *Mitzvah* to burn
4. Yet others imply that it applies only to items that the *Torah* (as opposed to the Rabanan) gives us a positive Mitzvah to burn. (See TOSFOS Yevamos 104a, at the top, TOSFOS Sukah 35a DH Lefi, and Rishonim there).
5. Another point in question is whether the Halachah of Ketutei Michtas Shi'urei is linked to the opinion of Rebbi Shimon (who rules that "All that is meant to be burned is considered as already burned" -- Menachos 102b). According to the Rishonim that link the two laws, the Rabanan who argue with Rebbi Shimon do not hold of the rule that Ketutei Michtas Shi'urei (RITVA Sukah 31b, see also RASHI Chulin 89b DH Shi'ura and elsewhere regarding Ketutei Michtas Shi'urei).
23) [last line] NISDAK - [the tops of the leaves of which are] split
24) [last line] KAFUF - [the top of which is] bent over

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