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Sukah 23

SUKAH 21-25 - my brother Ari Kornfeld has generously sponsored one month of Dafyomi publications for the benefit of Klal Yisrael

1) [line 30] LECHI
(a) Although mid'Oraisa a Mavoy (an alleyway joining several courtyards with Reshus ha'Rabim) is a Reshus ha'Yachid, nevertheless, the Chachamim prohibited carrying objects in a Mavoy a distance of four Amos or more. This decree was enacted because of its similarity to a Reshus ha'Rabim, since many families make use of a single Mavoy.
(b) Carrying in a Mavoy is permitted if a *Lechi* is placed vertically against one of the walls at the entrance to the Mavoy. A Lechi is a pole, plank, or other object that is at least ten Tefachim high. It serves as a Mechitzah (a fourth wall) or as a Heker (reminder) to signal the border of Reshus ha'Rabim and Reshus ha'Yachid so that people do not transfer objects from the Mavoy to the adjacent Reshus ha'Rabim (Eruvin 5a, 15a).

2) [line 30] PASIN L'VEIRA'OS
(a) Chazal instituted various lenient rulings in order to help Jews keep the Mitzvah of Aliyah l'Regel (traveling to the Beis ha'Mikdash for the holidays of Pesach, Shavu'os and Sukos). One of these is called Pasei Bira'os (planks for the springs).
(b) If a well is four by four Tefachim wide and ten Tefachim deep, it is considered to be a Reshus ha'Yachid. If it is located in the middle of Reshus ha'Rabim, one may not draw water from the well (= Reshus ha'Yachid) and set the bucket down at the edge of the pit (= Reshus ha'Rabim) for an animal to drink. A person may only drink from the well by climbing *into* the well, and drinking its water while he is in the well.
(c) By placing four corner pieces (Deyomdin) around the well (each made of two planks one Amah wide and ten Tefachim tall, set perpendicular to each other), the area enclosed by the planks is considered to be a 4-walled Reshus ha'Yachid. The open space between them is considered a "doorway" in a full wall. It is therefore permitted for a person to set a bucket of water drawn from the well at a point enclosed by the planks, and bring his animal (or most of it) within that area to drink from the water.
(d) The corner pieces were placed 10 Amos apart according to Rebbi Meir and 13 1/3 Amos apart according to Rebbi Yehudah. To enclose an area larger than 10 or 13 1/3 Amos, extra planks must be added between the corner pieces to shorten the gaps between them.

3) [line 31] GOLEL L'KEVER ("GOLEL" AND "DOFEK") (a) There are three basic opinions as to the meaning of Golel and Dofek:

[1] Golel refers to the wooden or stone cover of a coffin, and Dofek refers to its sides. The sides are called Dofek because the cover of the Mes bangs ("Dofek") on them. (RASHI, TOSFOS DH v'Lo Golel, ARUCH Erech Gelal, OR ZARU'A 2:424)
[2] Golel refers to the gravestone that is above the coffin, which is used as a marker. At the top and bottom of the gravestone are two smaller stones that are each called Dofek. (RABEINU TAM, cited in Tosfos Kesuvos 4b DH Ad she'Yisasem ha'Golel)
[3] When people used burial vaults rather than graves, they made use of a large stone or log as a door, which they would roll in front of the entrance. This door was called a Golel because they would roll (Golel) it. They would also use a wedge-like stone or plank, called a Dofek, to keep the door in place. (OR ZARU'A 2:424, quoting Rav Moshe)
(b) The Golel and Dofek are Avi Avos ha'Tum'ah and are Metamei through Maga and Ohel (and according to Rebbi Eliezer in Ohalos 2:4, they are also Metamei through Masa -- see RASHASH to RASHI DH v'Lo Golel).

4) [line 32] GITEI NASHIM
(a) In order for a man to divorce his wife, he must write her a Get (bill of divorce), as it states in Devarim 24:1. A Get may be written on any surface, including paper, parchment, potsherds, leaves that do not wither, the hand of a slave and the horn of a cow. (RAMBAM Hilchos Gerushin 4:3)
(b) Rebbi Yosi ha'Gelili is of the opinion that a Get may not be written on slaves or animals, but the Halachah does not follow his opinion.

5) [line 43] RAVCHA D'VEINI VEINI - the space that is between the animal's legs
6) [line 43] D'AVID LEI B'HUTZA V'DAFNA - he filled it with a screen made of palm leafs (Hutza) and the branches of a laurel tree (Dafna -- O.F. lorier - laurel; O.F. baies - berries, fruit of the laurel)

7) [line 44] RAV'AH - it will lay down
8) [line 44] D'MESICHAH B'ASHLEI MIL'EIL - it is tied tightly from above with ropes


9) [line 1] KAVTZA - it shrinks

A non-Kohen may not eat Terumah. A Kohen's wife, who is not herself a Kohenes, eats Terumah as long as her husband or their sons are alive, as is learned from the verses (Vayikra 22:11, Bamidbar 18:11) and the Gemara (Nidah 44a).

11) [line 9] KUSIM
(a) The King of Ashur brought the people of Kusa to Eretz Yisrael and made them settle in the Shomron. They converted to Judaism after they found themselves under attack from lions. The Chachamim disagree as to whether their conversion was honest and valid or not. After the times of the Mishnah, they were found worshipping an image of a dove and the Chachamim gave them the status of idolaters.
(b) Our Gemara is referring to a case before they lost their status of full- fledged Jews.

(a) After a crop is harvested and brought to the owner's house or yard, he must separate Terumah from the crop and give it to a Kohen. Although the Torah does not specify the amount to be given, the Rabanan set the requirement at one fiftieth of the total crop.
(b) After Terumah is removed from the produce, the first tithe to be given every year is called Ma'aser Rishon; one tenth of the produce must be given to a Levi.
(c) A second tithe is given every year after Ma'aser Rishon has been separated. The tithe that is separated in the third and sixth years of the 7-year Shemitah cycle is called Ma'aser Ani and is given to the poor.
(d) The tithe that is separated during the first, second, fourth and fifth years is called *Ma'aser Sheni*. The Torah requires that Ma'aser Sheni be brought and eaten by its owner in Yerushalayim.
(e) Alternatively, Ma'aser Sheni produce may be redeemed, in which case the money used to redeem it is brought to Yerushalayim. If the owner himself redeems the produce, he must add an additional *fifth* (of the ensuing total, or a *quarter* of the original value). The food which is bought with that money in Yerushalayim becomes Kodesh like Ma'aser Sheni and must be eaten b'Taharah. Ma'aser Sheni that was redeemed by anyone besides the owner is exempt from the fifth.

13) [last line] MEICHAL V'SHOSEH - (a) he redeems (from the word Chilul) the Ma'aser Sheni and may then drink the wine (RASHI); (b) he may begin (from the word Lehaschil) to drink the wine (RABEINU GERSHOM to Me'ilah 22a)

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