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Sukah 7

1) [line 1] V'YA'AMIDENO KENEGED ROSH TOR - (a) he should put the extra wall at a diagonal to the other walls. Rosh Tor means the shape formed by the ends of the furrows of a plow at the edge of a field. Since the edge is not exactly straight, the outermost furrow is shortest and the inner ones are each longer than the previous one, until they reach from one side of the field to the other. The ends of the furrows thus form a diagonal line, with relation to the direction of the furrows - RASHI. (b) Alternatively, Rosh Tor means the point of an earring, referring to a type of earring which was made in the form of a triangle. Any angle was therefore referred to as "Rosh Tor" - RASH, Mishnayos Kil'ayim 2:7. In our Sugya, the Gemara means that the extra wall should be set opposite the angle formed by the meeting of the two other walls.

2) [line 5] TEFACH SOCHEK - a wide (lit. laughing) handbreadth, i.e. with the fingers not touching each other

3a) [line 8] HE'ASUYAH K'MAVOY - which is made like an alleyway, with two walls parallel to each other
b) [line 8] KESHEIRAH - is built in the proper manner, and only needs another Tefach for the third wall

4) [line 15] SHTEI DEFANOS K'HILCHASAN - two walls built in the proper manner, perpendicular to each other, and connected in the corner

5) [line 18] TZURAS HA'PESACH (a) Certain Halachos, such as the creation of a Reshus ha'Yachid on Shabbos, require the presence of Mechitzos. In the absence of physical Mechitzos, or if there is too broad a breach in a Mechitzah, a Tzuras ha'Pesach may be employed to take the place of a solid wall.
(b) A Tzuras ha'Pesach consists of a primitive doorframe: "One vertical pole on either side, with a horizontal rod lying on top of them" (Eruvin 11b). The area inside of the Tzuras ha'Pesach is considered to be a doorway rather than a breach, and it therefore takes the place of solid wall.
(c) There are a number of conditions that must be fulfilled in order for the Tzuras ha'Pesach to be valid (see Insights to Eruvin 11b, 16b).

6a) [line 18] V'EINAH NITERES ELA B'TZURAS HA'PESACH - a Sukah which is made of two perpendicular walls and an additional Tefach for the third wall, is only permitted if the Tefach which is used as the third wall is built in the form of a Tzuras ha'Pesach; i.e. the Tefach long wall must consist of two poles (which are together a Tefach wide) set seven Tefachim apart, with a horizontal rod lying on top of them thereby forming a Halachic third wall (which is parallel to the one of the two physical walls).
b) [line 19] V'NITERES NAMI B'TZURAS HA'PESACH - the Sukah is also permitted with a Tzuras ha'Pesach; i.e. with either a Tefach Keneged ha'Yotzei, at the end of the perpendicular walls, where they are not connected, or with a Tzuras Pesach, one vertical pole (of any width) adjoining one of the walls and another vertical pole seven Tefachim away with a horizontal rod lying on top of them, forming a third Halachic wall (which is parallel to the first of the two physical walls).
c) [line 20] U'TZERICHAH NAMI TZURAS HA'PESACH - the Sukah needs both a Tefach at the end of the perpendicular walls and a Tzuras ha'Pesach formed by placing a vertical pole (of any width) seven Tefachim away from the Tefach wide wall, with a horizontal rod lying on top of the two reaching from one to the other, forming a third Halachic wall (which is parallel to the first of the two physical walls).

7) [line 26] SHETAYIM K'HILCHASAN - this is referring to the Beraisa brought on the top of 6b, line 11

8) [line 26] V'CHEN L'SHABBOS - the area enclosed by the Sukah (that has a Tefach-long third wall) is considered a "Rechus ha'Yachid" as far as Shabbos is concerned (and one may carry within it even a distance of four Amos or more, on Shabbos of Sukos).

10) [line 32] OMED MERUBAH AL HA'PARUTZ (the size of the solid parts of the enclosure are greater than the size of the open spaces)
(a) For certain Halachos, the Torah requires that an area be set aside from the outside by being surrounded by Mechitzos (partitions). The Mechitzos do not need to be solid. Breaches in the Mechitzos can be considered entranceways as long as they are not more than ten Amos wide.
(b) However, there is a Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai that states that if "Parutz Merubeh Al ha'Omed," i.e. the combined length of the breaches adds up to more than the combined length of the solid parts, the Mechitzah is not valid.

11) [line 36] LECHI -
(a) Although mid'Oraisa a Mavoy is a Reshus ha'Yachid, nevertheless, the Chachamim prohibited carrying objects in a Mavoy a distance of four Amos or more. This decree was enacted because of its similarity to a Reshus ha'Rabim, since many families make use of a single Mavoy.
(b) Carrying in a Mavoy is permitted if a *Lechi* is placed vertically against one of the walls at the entrance to the Mavoy. A Lechi is a pole, plank, or other object that is at least ten Tefachim high. It serves as a Mechitzah (a fourth wall) or as a Heker (reminder) to signal the border of Reshus ha'Rabim and Reshus ha'Yachid so that people do not transfer objects from the Mavoy to the adjacent Reshus ha'Rabim (Eruvin 5a, 15a).
(c) Our Gemara suggests that on Shabbos of Sukos, since a Lechi of any width suffices to make the area a Reshus ha'Yachid, it would validate a Sukah (made of two parallel walls) as well.

12a) [line 37] KILTA - a lenient case, Sukah
b) [last line] CHAMIRTA - a stringent case, Shabbos


14) [line 2] PASEI BIRA'OS
(a) Chazal instituted various lenient rulings in order to help Jews keep the Mitzvah of Aliyah l'Regel (traveling to the Beis ha'Mikdash for the holidays of Pesach, Shavu'os and Sukos). One of these is called Pasei Bira'os (planks for the springs).
(b) If a well is four by four Tefachim wide and ten Tefachim deep, it is considered to be a Reshus ha'Yachid. If it is located in the middle of Reshus ha'Rabim, one may not draw water from the well (= Reshus ha'Yachid) and set the bucket down at the edge of the pit (= Reshus ha'Rabim) for an animal to drink. A person may only drink from the well by climbing *into* the well, and drinking its water while in the well.
(c) By placing four corner pieces (Deyomdin) around the well (each made of two planks one Amah wide and ten Tefachim tall, set perpendicular to each other), the area enclosed by the planks is considered to be a 4-walled Reshus ha'Yachid and the open space between them is considered a "doorway" in a full wall. It is therefore permitted for a person to set a bucket of water drawn from the well at a point enclosed by the planks, and bring his animal (or most of it) within that area to drink from the water.
(d) The corner pieces were placed 10 Amos apart according to Rebbi Meir and 13 1/3 Amos apart according to Rebbi Yehudah. To enclose an area larger than 10 or 13 1/3 Amos, extra planks must be added between the corner pieces to shorten the gaps between them.

15) [line 17] D'NEIKOF BAH PURTA, D'MECHEZEI KI'SECHACH - that we should bend over the top of the Paroches a little bit, so that it should from a small horizontal ceiling

16) [line 21] DIRAS KEVA - (a structure which is suitable for and looks like) a permanent dwelling

17) [line 33] K'MIN TZERIF - like a hut, in which the roof is not a separate horizontal structure but is formed by the extension of the walls

18) [line 33] SHE'SAMCHAH L'KOSEL - he leaned the wall of the Sukah on a wall
19) [line 36] K'SHOVACH - [round] like a dovecote
20) [line 37] ZAVIYOS - corners
21) [line 38] K'CHIVSHAN - [round] like a furnace
22) [line 43] HEKEFO - its circumference

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