ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem
Previous daf Sotah 39
(a) Rava bar Rav Huna learned from the Pasuk "u'che'Poscho Amdu Kol ha'Am" -
that talking, even Divrei Torah, is forbidden, once the Seifer-Torah has
been opened for Leining.
Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi learns from the Pasuk "Se'u Yedeichem Kodesh
u'Varchu es Hashem" - that a Kohen is obligated to wash his hands before
Duchening, failing which, he is not permitted to Duchen.
(b) "Amdu" means 'they stopped talking'.
(c) Rebbi Zeira Amar Rav Chisda learns exactly the same thing from the Pasuk
"ve'Oznei Kol ha'Am el Sefer ha'Torah".
(a) Rebbi Elazar ben Shamua attributed his long life to the fact that he
never made the Beis-Hamedrash a Kapendarya, never trod on the heads of the
holy people - and (in his capacity as a Kohen) never Duchened without first
reciting a B'rachah.
Besides the B'rachah that a Kohen recites before Duchening, he also recites
one prayer as he goes up to Duchen, and another prayer when he turns round
after Duchening. He prays ...
(b) 'Kapendarya' is the acronym of 'a'de'Makifna a'Darei, Ei'ul be'Ha'
(instead of making my way round these rows of houses, I will go through
(c) When he said that he never trod on the heads of the holy people - he
meant that he never clambered over the heads of the Talmidim who were
sitting on the floor, to get to his place; he either arrived early or waited
outside until the session was finished.
1. ... on his way up to Duchen - that the B'rachah that he is about to bless
Yisrael should not cause a stumbling-block or a sin.
2. ... when he turns round after Duchening - that now that the Kohanim have
fulfilled their obligation, Hashem should do what He promised to do (to look
down from His Holy dwelling, and bless His people Yisrael).
(a) The Kohanim are permitted to bend the joints of their fingers - as soon
as they have turned away from the Tzibur.
(b) Rebbi Zeira Amar Rav Chisda lists the stages of Birchas Kohanim. The
care that must be taken by ...
1. ... the one who announces 'Kohanim' is - to wait until the Tzibur have
finished responding Amen to the B'rachah.
(c) The Kohanim are permitted ...
2. ... the Kohanim (before reciting the B'rachah (of 'Asher Kidshanu .. ')
is - to wait until the Tzibur have finished responding Amen to their first
3. ... the Tzibur, before responding 'Amen' is - to wait until the Kohanim
have finished the B'rachah.
4. ... the Kohanim, before beginning each B'rachah is - wait until the
Tzibur have finished responding 'Amen'.
1. ... to turn away from the Tzibur - when the Shatz begins 'Sim Shalom'.
2. ... to go down from the Duchan - with the termination of the Amidah.
(a) Rebbi Zeira Amar Rav Chisda prescribes that before ...
1. ... the Tzibur respond 'Amen' to the B'rachah of the person who is called
up to the Torah - he has completed the B'rachah.
(b) The reason for these Halachos - is due to the principle 'T'rei Koli Lo
Mishtam'i' (it is not possible to hear [properly] two voices simultaneously,
and certainly not someone else whilst one is oneself talking).
2. ... the Ba'al Korei before he begins to Lein - the Tzibur have finished
3. ... the Metargem (translator) before he begins to translate the Pasuk
just read by the Ba'al Korei - that the Ba'al ha'Korei has completed the
4. ... the Ba'al Korei before he continues to Lein - that the Metargem has
finished translating the previous Pasuk.
(a) Rebbi Tanchum Amar Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi says that the person who
reads the Haftarah - must first read in the Torah (Maftir).
(b) He forbids him to begin the Haftarah until the Golel has finished his
Mitzvah - so that the Magbihah and the Golel will be able to concentrate on
(c) And when he says 'Ein Sh'liach Tzibur Rashai Le'hafshit es ha'Teivah
be'Tzibur' - he means that, after they finish Leining, the Shamash should
not remove the cloths from the Aron (that were brought together with the
Sefer-Torah and placed there in its honor) before the Tzibur have left to
accompany the Sefer-Torah back to its current (protected) location. Only
after they have departed is he permitted to remove them from the Aron and
return them to where the Sefer-Torah is housed.
(d) The reason for this is - because of Kavod Torah (i.e. Tircha
de'Tzibura), so that the people will not have to wait for him whilst he
removes the cloths from the Aron.
(a) He also forbids the people to leave the Shul before the Sefer-Torah has
been picked up to return to its place. Shmuel is even more stringent -
forbidding them even to leave until the Sefer-Torah has been taken out of
(b) The two opinions do not argue - because Rebbi Tanchum Amar Rebbi
Yehoshua ben Levi speaks when there are two entrances, in which case, one is
permitted to leave from the second entrance as soon as they have picked up
the Sefer-Torah; whereas Shmuel speaks when there is only one entrance, in
which case, one should not leave before the Sefer-Torah.
(c) bar Ahina learned from the Pasuk "Acharei Hashem Elokeichem Teilechu" -
Shmuel's Halachah (that one should not the Shul before the Sefer-Torah).
(a) The significance of the three Pesulim in Tehilim ...
1. ... "Borchu Hashem Mal'achav, Giborei Ko'ach"; "Borchu Hashem Kol
Tzeva'av, Meshorsav Osei Retzono"; "Borchu Hashem Kol Ma'asav be'Chol
Mekomos Memshalto, Borchi Nafshi es Hashem" is - that this is what the
Tzibur recite as an expression of thanks and acknowledgment to Hashem
following the three B'rachos with which the Kohanim have just blessed them.
(b) In the last set of Pesukim, they substitute the third Pasuk (which is
taken from the following chapter) for "Yevarech'cha Hashem mi'Tziyon Oseh
Shamayim va'Aretz" (which is written in the same chapter) - because the
latter Pasuk speaks about Hashem blessing Yisrael, whereas all the Pesukim
deal with Hashem being blessed (to acknowledge His having blessed them).
2. ... "Shir ha'Ma'alos, Hinei Borchu es Hashem Kol Avdei Hashem"; "Se'u
Yedeichem Kodesh u'Varchu es Hashem"; "Baruch Hashem mi'Tziyon Shochen
Yerushalayim Halelukah" - is that those are the three Pesukim which they
recite at Shabbos Musaf.
(c) They recite different Pesukim at Shabbos Musaf than at Shachris -
because Duchening then is a new institution, that did not exist during the
(a) The Tzibur recite the Pesukim "Im Avoneinu Anu Vanu Hashem, Asei Lema'an
Shemecha"; "Mikveh Yisrael Moshi'o be'Eis Tzarah Lamah Sih'yeh ke'Ger
ba'Aretz"; "Lamah Sih'yeh ke'Ish Nidham, ke'Gibor Lo Yuchal Le'hoshi'a?" -
at Minchah on a Ta'anis.
(b) They recite special Pesukim then - because again, it is something new
that was not done on other days?
(c) The Kohanim Duchen at Minchah on a Ta'anis but not otherwise - because
they do not need to worry about the possibility of being drunk, which they
do on regular days.