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of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld

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Sotah 40


(a) (Mar Zutra): At Ne'ilah on Yom Kipur, they say "So will be blessed a man that fears Hash-m"; "Hash-m will bless you from Tziyon..."; "You will see children to your children".
(b) Question: When are the verses said?
(c) Answer #1 (Rav Yosef): After each of the 3 blessings.
(d) Answer #2 (Rav Sheshes): After each mention of Hash-m's name.
1. Opinion #1 (Rav Mari or Rav Zevid): At each of these 3 places (according to Rav Yosef or Rav Sheshes), 1 of the 3 verses is said.
2. Opinion #2 (The other of Rav Mari and Rav Zevid): At each of these 3 places, all 3 verses are said.
(e) (R. Chiya bar Aba): It is a mistake to say the verses outside the Mikdash.
1. Support (Rav Papa): Even in the Mikdash, it is not so proper - if a servant is being blessed, should he not listen attentively?!
(f) (Rav Acha bar Chanina): The verses should also be said outside the Mikdash.
1. If a servant is being blessed, should he not show his appreciation?!
(g) (R. Avahu): I used to say the verses; when I saw that R. Aba of Ako did not say them, I stopped saying them.
(a) (R. Avahu): I used to consider myself humble. I saw that R. Aba of Ako was not upset when his translator (when broadcasting R. Aba's words) explained things not as R. Aba said - I realized that I am not humble.
(b) Question: How do we know that R. Avahu was humble?
(c) Answer #1: The wife of R. Avahu's translator told R. Avahu's wife 'My husband does not need your husband (he is no less a Chacham; he merely shows honor to him'. When R. Avahu heard this, he did not care.
(d) Answer #2: Chachamim voted that R. Avahu should be the head. He saw that R. Aba of Ako was in debt - he told them that R. Aba should be the head.
(e) R. Avahu and R. Aba of Ako came to a place. R. Avahu gave a lesson in non-Halachic teachings, R. Aba gave a lesson in Halachic teachings. Everyone flocked to R. Avahu's lesson; R. Aba was distraught.
1. R. Avahu: Our situation is as 2 men, 1 sells gems, the other sells cheap essentials. Everyone flocks to the seller of the cheap things.
2. R. Aba of Ako used to escort R. Avahu to where R. Avahu was staying, because the emperor esteemed R. Avahu. That day, R. Avahu escorted R. Aba to R. Aba's lodging, yet R. Aba still was distraught.
(a) Question: When the Chazan says the blessing Modim (we thank), what does the congregation say?
(b) Answer #1 (Rav): Hash-m, we thank You for giving us the desire to thank You.
(c) Answer #2 (Shmuel): (We thank You) G-d of all flesh, for giving us the desire to thank You.
(d) Answer #3 (R. Simai): (We thank You) Who formed us, Who formed the creation, for giving us the desire to thank You.
(e) Answer #4 (Nehardai, citing R. Simai): Thanks and praises to Your great name, that You kept us alive and sustained us, for giving us the desire to thank You.
1. Rav Acha bar Yakov would conclude: So You should sustain us and be gracious to us and gather our exiles to Your holy courtyards, to guard Your statutes and do Your will with a full heart, for giving us the desire to thank You.
2. (Rav Papa): Therefore, we say all of these.
(f) (R. Yitzchak): The fear of the congregation should be upon you - Kohanim face the congregation, and have their back to the Divine Presence!
(g) (Rav Nachman): We can learn from the following: "King David stood up and said 'hear me, my brothers and nation'".
1. Question: If he considers Bnei Yisrael his brothers, why does he call them his nation?
2. Answer (R. Elazar): He told them: if you listen to me, you are my brothers; if not, you are my nation, and I will rule over you with a staff.
(h) (Chachamim): We can learn that the fear of the congregation should be upon you from the law that Kohanim may not ascend to bless the congregation while wearing shoes; this was 1 of 9 enactments of R. Yochanan ben Zakai.
1. Suggestion: They may not wear shoes because this is disrespectful to the congregation.
(i) Rejection (Rav Ashi): No - the concern is, a Kohen's shoe will become untied, he will stop to tie it and miss Birkas Kohanim; people will think he did not bless because he is not a valid Kohen, e.g. his mother was a divorcee or Chalutzah.
(j) (Mishnah): In the Mikdash, Birkas Kohanim was 1 long blessing.

(k) Question: Why?
(l) Answer: Because we do not answer Amen, there is nothing to separate the 3 verses of blessing.
(m) (Beraisa): "Arise and bless Hash-m from (this) world until the (next) world (and may your (Hash-m's) holy name be blessed)" - this teaches that we do not answer Amen in the Mikdash (but rather, 'Blessed is the name of his honored kingdom forever');
(n) "And may your holy name be blessed and exalted Al (above) every blessing and praise" - this teaches that we answer (Blessed is the name...) Al (on) each blessing.
(a) (Mishnah): The overseer of the synagogue (near the Mikdash) gives the Sefer Torah to the head of the synagogue (Gabai); he gives it to the vice-Kohen Gadol, and he gives it to the Kohen Gadol.
(b) The Kohen Gadol stands up, receives the Torah and reads from the Parshiyos "After the death" and "On the 10th" (which deal with Yom Kipur);
1. He rolls (closes) the Torah and says 'There is more written in this Sefer than what I read'; He reads by heart the Parsha in Sefer Bamidbar about the sacrifices of Yom Kipur.
(c) He makes 8 blessings: on reading the Torah, on the Temple service, of thanks, of forgiveness of sin, for the Mikdash, for Yisrael, for the Kohanim, for Yerushalayim, and for the rest of the prayer (This seems to be 9 blessings. Keren Orah says that the blessing for Yisrael is the blessing for the rest of the prayer. The text of out Mishnah in the Mishnayos (and the Yerushalayimi) omits the blessing 'for Yerushalayim'.)
(d) (Gemara): Our Mishnah teaches that one may honor a Talmid in front of his Rebbi (the vice Kohen Gadol in front of the Kohen Gadol).
(e) Rejection (Abaye): No - our Mishnah only permits it because this itself adds honor to the Kohen Gadol.
(f) (Mishnah): The Kohen Gadol stands up and receives the Torah ...
(g) Question: This implies, he was sitting before this - but only kings of the Davidic line may sit in the Mikdash!
1. We learn this from "King David came and sat in front of Hash-m, and said 'Who am I? ...'"
(h) Answer: The Kohen Gadol reads in the women's courtyard, which does not have the Kedushah of the Mikdash (as Rav Chisda answered a different question).
(i) Question (Beraisa): He reads in the courtyard of the Temple; R. Eliezer ben Yakov says, in the Temple mount - "He read in (the Torah) in front of the street in front of the Water Gate.
(j) Answer (Rav Chisda): He reads in the Ezras Nashim
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