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Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld

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Sotah 29

SOTAH 26,27,29,30 - These Dafim have been dedicated by Mrs. Estanne Abraham-Fauer in honor of the first Yahrzeit (18 Teves 5761) of her father, Reb Mordechai ben Eliezer Zvi (Weiner). May the merit of supporting and advancing the study of the Talmud be l'Iluy Nishmaso.


1. Rejection: If she is considered a Zonah regarding Kehunah, she would also be a Zonah regarding Terumah - but R. Akiva learned Terumah from a verse!
(b) Answer: Rather, R. Akiva expounds 4 verses; they teach the prohibition to her husband, the adulterer, Terumah, and Kehunah.
1. R. Yishmael does not need a verse to teach about Kehunah - this is learned from a Kal va'Chomer from Terumah.
(c) Question: Perhaps the verse teaches about Kehunah, but she is permitted to Terumah!
(d) Answer: It is more reasonable that the 3rd verse teaches a prohibition similar to the prohibitions to the husband and the adulterer, which apply in the husband's lifetime, i.e. Terumah; but not (that she becomes forbidden to) Kehunah, which only applies after the husband dies.
1. R. Akiva does not hold that the prohibitions must resemble each other;
2. Or, he holds a verse teaches the prohibition to Kehunah, even though it may be learned from a Kal va'Chomer.
(e) (Rav Gidal): Different verses teach the distinction when a party has understanding!
1. "Meat (of sacrifices) that will touch anything Tamei, will not be eaten" - if it definitely became Tamei, it may not be eaten; if it is doubtful, it may be eaten;
2. Contradiction: "Every Tahor person may eat meat (of sacrifices)" - if he is definitely Tahor, he may eat; if he is unsure, he may not eat;
3. Resolution: When an involved party has understanding, we are stringent when in doubt; when no involved party has understanding, we are lenient;
(f) It is necessary to learn both as Rav Gidal and from Sotah.
1. If we only learned as Rav Gidal - we would not distinguish between a public and private domain.
2. If we only learned from Sotah - we would think that we are only stringent when both the party becoming Tamei and the party conveying Tum'ah have understanding.
(a) (Mishnah): On that day, R. Akiva expounded: "Every earthenware vessel ...
(b) Question: (According to R. Yochanan ben Zakai) if no verse says that Terumah can acquire 3rd level Tum'ah - why can it?
(c) Answer (Rav Yehudah): No verse teaches this, but a Kal va'Chomer does.
1. Suggestion #1: A Tevul Yom (one who immersed from Tum'ah today) is Tahor regarding Chulin, but he disqualifies Terumah by touching it; a 2nd degree Tamei loaf, which is Tamei regarding Chulin - all the more so, it disqualifies Terumah by touching it.
2. Objection: One cannot learn from a Tevul Yom, for (before immersing) he was a source of Tum'ah (he could make people or vessels Tamei) - the loaf was never a source of Tum'ah!

3. Suggestion #2: We learn from a Tevul Yom (person or vessel) that touched a rodent.
4. Objection: One cannot learn from a Tevul Yom, for he (or it) can be a source of Tum'ah.
5. Answer: We can learn from an earthenware vessel, since it can never be a source of Tum'ah.
6. Objection: We cannot learn from an earthenware vessel, since it has the stringency that it acquires Tum'ah from its airspace!
7. Answer: We learn from a Tevul Yom (that this stringency is not the reason why it makes Terumah Tamei).
i. The stringency of a Tevul Yom and that of an earthenware vessel are different; the common side is that they are Tahor regarding Chulin, and make Terumah Tamei - all the more so, a loaf that is 2nd degree Tamei makes Terumah Tamei. (Rashi's text: the common side is that they are called Tamei, and make Terumah Tamei - also a loaf that is 2nd degree Tamei makes Terumah Tamei.)
(d) R. Yochanan ben Zakai was concerned that future Chachamim would reject the Kal va'Chomer because each sources has a special stringency.
1. R. Yochanan ben Zakai holds that this is not grounds to reject a Kal va'Chomer.
(a) (Beraisa - R. Yosi): We learn that Kodshim can receive 4th degree Tum'ah from a Kal va'Chomer.
1. A Mechusar Kipurim (a Tamei person that does not become fully Tahor until he brings a sacrifice, and has done all other steps of becoming Tahor) is permitted to eat Terumah, but he disqualifies Kodshim - food which is 3rd degree Tamei, which is forbidden regarding Terumah, all the more so it disqualifies Kodshim!
2. A verse teaches that Kodshim receives 3rd degree Tum'ah; the Kal va'Chomer teaches that it receives 4th degree Tum'ah.
(b) Question: Which verse teaches that Kodshim receives 3rd degree Tum'ah?
(c) Answer: "Meat (of Kodshim) that will touch anything Tamei may not be eaten" - even if it touched a 2nd degree Tum'ah.
(d) Objection (R. Yochanan): I do not understand R. Yosi - there is an obvious refutation of his Kal va'Chomer!
1. A food touched by a Tevul Yom, even though it is Tamei regarding Terumah, does not make a 4th degree Tum'ah regarding Kodshim!
2. (Beraisa - Aba Sha'ul): A Tevul Yom is as a 1st degree regarding Kodshim - he makes Tamei 2 levels of Kodshim foods (1st level - what he touches directly; 2nd level - what touches 1st level)) and makes a 3rd level Pasul (i.e. the 3rd level may not be eaten, but it cannot disqualify another food);
i. R. Meir says, he makes 1 level Tamei, and a 2nd level Pasul;
ii. Chachamim say, just as he is Posel food and drink of Terumah, he is Posel food and drink of Kodshim (the 1st level cannot disqualify another food).
(e) Objection (Rav Papa): The question assumes that R. Yosi holds as Chachamim - perhaps he holds as Aba Sha'ul (or R. Meir)!
(f) Answer: He cannot - if he did, he would learn a 4th degree of Tum'ah by Kodshim from a food which touched a Tevul Yom.
1. A Tevul Yom is Tahor regarding Chulin, yet he disqualifies (mid'Oraisa) 2 more levels of Kodshim foods - a 2nd degree Tamei food, which is Tamei regarding Chulin, all the more so it disqualifies 2 more levels of Kodshim!
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