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Sotah 21

SOTAH 21-25 - These Dafim have been dedicated by Mrs. Estanne Abraham-Fauer in honor of the first Yahrzeit (18 Teves 5761) of her father, Reb Mordechai ben Eliezer Zvi (Weiner). May the merit of supporting and advancing the study of the Talmud be l'Iluy Nishmaso.

1) [line 1] "KOLA META AL NEVUCHADNETZAR MALKA." - "All of this [Daniel's interpretation of the Nevudchadnetzar's dream] befell King Nevuchadnetzar." (Daniel 4:25) - In order to show Nevuchadnetzar that the world is ruled by HaSh-m and that his glory was given to him by HaSh-m, it was decreed that he live like a beast in the fields for seven years. He ate grass like oxen, his hair grew like eagles' feathers and his nails grew like birds' claws. After seven years he lifted up his eyes to Heaven and blessed, praised and honored HaSh-m, and his reason and understanding returned to him. He returned to his former glory as king of the known world, receiving added dominion over the wild beasts of the fields.

2) [line 2] "LI'KETZAS YARCHIN TREI ASAR..." - "At the end of twelve months..." - (Daniel 4:27) - The subsequent verses describe how all of these events befell Nevuchadnetzar.

3) [line 4] "AL SHELOSHAH PISH'EI EDOM, V'AL ARBA'AH LO ASHIVENU" - "for three transgressions of Edom [I have looked away], but for four I will not pardon them" (Amos 1:11)

4) [line 6] D'LO MAFKID DINA ALAIHU - their judgment is not always carried out as quickly as that of Yisrael (i.e. it is not carried out in this world but rather meted out in the World to Come)

5) [line 10] MI MAGNA KULEI HAI? - Does the merit of a Mitzvah save its doer to such an extent?

6) [line 17] "B'HIS'HALECHECHA TANCHEH OSACH, B'SHOCHBECHA TISHMOR ALECHA;VA'HAKITZOSA HI SESICHECHA." - "As you walk, it will guide you, as you recline, it will guard you; and when you awake, it will converse with you." (Mishlei 6:22)

7) [line 19] B'ISHON LAILAH VA'AFEILAH - in the black, dark night (based upon Mishlei 7:9)
8) [line 20] KOTZIM - thorns
9) [line 20] PECHASIM - pits
10) [line 20] BARKANIM - thistles
11) [line 24] PARASHAS DERACHIM - an intersection (with road signs)
12) [line 25] "MAYIM RABIM LO YUCHLU L'CHABOS ES HA'AHAVAH, U'NEHAROS LO YISHTEFUHA; IM YITEN ISH ES KOL HON BEISO BA'AHAVAH, BOZ YAVUZU LO" - "Many waters cannot extinguish the love, and rivers cannot wash it out; if a man would give all the substance of his house in exchange for love, he would be laughed to scorn." (Shir ha'Shirim 8:7)

13) [line 26] MAGNA U'MATZLA - it protects and it saves
14) [line 33] B'AGRA D'MAKRIN U'MISNAYAN BENAIHU V'NATRAN LEHU L'GAVRAIHU AD D'ASU MI'BEI MIDRASHA - [they are saved] with the merit that they exert themselves to make sure that their sons learn verses of Tanach and the Mishnayos, and that they [cause their husbands to learn Mishnah and Gemara by sending them away to other cities to learn and they] wait for their husbands to return from the Beis Midrash

15) [line 34] MI LO PALGA'AN BAHADAIHU? - Do they not get a share [of the merit of the Torah learning] along with them (their husbands)?

16) [line 36] TALMID CHACHAM D'SALKA LEI SHEMA'ATESA ALIBA D'HILCHESA - a Torah scholar who learns the Sugyos and concludes from them the correct Halachah

17) [line 38] KI SINAI - as if he received it [personally] from Mount Sinai
18) [line 43] AVAD ISKA - traded in merchandise
19) [line 43] TA, NA'AROV V'LIFLOG - come, let us mix our assets [Torah learning and material wealth] and divide it equally


20) [line 5] "ANI CHOCHMAH, SHACHANTI ORMAH; V'DA'AS MEZIMOS EMTZA." - "I am wisdom, I dwell in shrewdness; I provide knowledge of designs." (Mishlei 8:12)

21) [line 13] "VEHA'CHOCHMAH ME'AYIN TIMATZEI? V'EI ZEH MEKOM BINAH?" - "But where shall wisdom be found? And where is the place of understanding?" (Iyov 28:12)

22) [line 18] LAV ORACH AR'A - it is not Derech Eretz, proper conduct
23) [line 19] V'ATZULAH - and to save her
24) [line 20] HA'MAT'IM DEVARAV LA'DAYAN - who discusses with the judge the evidence of his innocence or the reasons for which he should win his case.

25) [line 23] LEKET
"Leket" refers to individual (one or two) stalks of grain that inadvertently slipped out of the reaper's hand while he harvested them (by cutting them underneath with a sickle) or while he uprooted them (if he is not using a sickle) (Chinuch #218; see Pe'ah 4:10 and Chidushei Anshei Shem). Such stalks may not be retrieved by the owner but must be left for the poor, as described in Vayikra (19:9-10), "v'Leket Ketzircha Lo Selaket...le'Ani vela'Ger Ta'azov Osam." - "Do not pick up the individual stalks that have fallen from the harvest...you shall leave them (the gifts of Pe'ah, Leket, Olelos and Peret) for the poor and the stranger." If three stalks fall together, they are not considered Leket and may be retrieved by the owner.

26) [line 23] SHIKCHAH
If one or two bundles of grain were forgotten in the field when the other bundles were collected, they must be left for the poor, as described in Devarim (24:19). Also, one may not backtrack to harvest a row previously overlooked.

27) [line 23] PE'AH
The corner, or end, of the harvest must be left in the field for the poor, as it states "Lo Sechaleh Pe'as Sadecha Liktzor...le'Ani vela'Ger Ta'azov Osam." - "Do not completely harvest the corner of your field...you shall leave them (the gifts of Pe'ah, Leket, Olelos and Peret) for the poor and the stranger." (Vayikra 19:9-10)

28) [line 24] MA'ASER ANI
(a) After a crop is harvested and brought to the owner's house or yard, he must separate Terumah from the crop and give it to a Kohen. Although the Torah does not specify the amount to be given, the Rabanan set the requirement at one fiftieth of the total crop.
(b) After Terumah is removed from the produce, the first tithe to be given every year is called Ma'aser Rishon; one tenth of the produce must be given to a Levi.
(c) A second tithe is given every year after Ma'aser Rishon has been separated. The tithe that is separated in the third and sixth years of the 7-year Shemitah cycle is called *Ma'aser Ani* and is given to the poor.
(d) The tithe that is separated during the first, second, fourth and fifth years is called *Ma'aser Sheni*. The Torah requires that Ma'aser Sheni be brought and eaten by its owner in Yerushalayim.
(e) Alternatively, Ma'aser Sheni produce may be redeemed, in which case the money used to redeem it is brought to Yerushalayim. If the owner himself redeems the produce, he must add an additional *fifth* (of the ensuing total, or a *quarter* of the original value). The food that is bought with this money in Yerushalayim becomes Kodesh like Ma'aser Sheni and must be eaten b'Taharah. Ma'aser Sheni that was redeemed by anyone besides the owner is exempt from the additional fifth.

29) [line 30] HA'MACHRI'A ACHERIM B'ORCHOSAV - who causes others to follow in his ways [by exhorting to them, "Take note and make sure that you follow in my footsteps"] (as a ruse to hide the fact that he is actually an evil person)

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