ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem
SHEVUOS 2 - The first Daf of Shevuos has been dedicated l'Iluy Nishmas
Esther (bas Moshe) Farber of Riverdale, NY, who passed away a short while
ago (13 Shevat 5763). A descendant of the Chasam Sofer, Esther was a
courageous woman, clinging strongly to her heritage despite personal
tragedies, who affected the lives of many students and friends.
Please note that unless otherwise indicated, we follow the explanation of
Rashi. Consequently, our notes and comments do not necessarily have any
bearing on the practical Halachah.
(a) Shevu'os and Yedi'os ha'Tum'ah ...
1. ... Shabbos and Mar'os Nega'im all have in common - the fact that there
are two cases specifically implied by the Torah and two cases that the Torah
includes separately ('Shetayim she'Hein Arba').
(b) The Tana is referring to a Shevu'as Bituy, which means - a Shevu'ah that
a person makes voluntarily.
2. ... have in common - the fact that both are subject to bring a Korban
Oleh ve'Yored (meaning an animal Korban for a wealthy person, bird Korban
for a poor person, and a flour-offering for someone who is very poor).
(c) The Pasuk writes specifically "Le'hara O Le'heitiv", which mean - either
to suffer (such as by fasting) or to pamper oneself (such as by eating).
(d) The two cases that are specifically implied in the 'Shetayim' - both
pertain to the future (that he will either fast and then doesn't or that he
will eat and then doesn't); whereas the two that are included in the
'Arba' - pertain to the past (where he either swears that he fasted or that
he ate, when really he didn't).
(a) 'Yedi'as ha'Tum'ah Shetayim' refers to someone who does not know that he
is Tamei and eats Kodshim or enters the precincts of the Beis-Hamikdash. The
'Arba' - to where he knows that he is Tamei but not that he is in the Beis
Hamikash or that he is eating Kodshim.
(b) We learn from the Pasuk "Vayetzav Moshe Vaya'aviru Kol ba'Machaneh ...
" - the prohibition of Hotza'ah (carrying from the house into the street)
(c) 'Shetayim' constitutes the poor man (who is standing in the street)
taking the loaf from the hand of the rich man (who is standing in the house)
out into the street, and the rich man placing the loaf into the poor man's
hand in the street, 'Arba' constitutes - the same two cases but with regard
to Hachnasah (carrying from the street into the house).
1. The 'Shetayim' of Mar'os Nega'im comprises -Baheres and Se'eis (two
appearances of Tzara'as) ...
2. ... whereas the 'Arba' comprises - Sapachas (which constitute the Toldah
of Baheres and the Toldah of Se'eis.
(a) Regarding Yedi'os ha'Tum'ah, one only brings a Korban Olah ve'Yored - if
there was a Yedi'ah to begin with, then he forgot at the time when he
transgressed, and then he remembered again.
(b) If he was initially aware of the Tum'ah but then forgot and did not
subsequently recall it, the goat that is brought inside, will atone for him
until he remembers. This is the Sa'ir la'Hashem whose blood is brought
inside the Kodesh to be sprinkled. Besides that, there is the Sa'ir
la'Azazel (which was taken out of the camp and pushed off a cliff) and the
goat of the Musaf (whose blood is sprinkled outside [in the Azarah]).
(c) 've'Yom ha'Kipurim Toleh' - means that Yom Kipur protects him from being
punished until he remembers that he was Tamei and brings the required
(a) In the reverse case, if he was initially unaware of the Tum'ah but later
realized that he had been Tamei - the Korban ha'Na'aseh ba'Chutz (as part of
the Musaf) atones.
(b) He is not then Chayav to bring the Korban Oleh ve'Yored - because one
only brings a Korban Oleh ve'Yored if there was a Yedi'ah at the beginning.
(c) The Tana Kama learns from the Pasuk (written by the Musaf in Parshas
Pinchas) "u'Se'ir Chatas Echad, Milevad Chatas ha'Kipurim" - that just as
the latter (the 'Chatas ha'Na'aseh bi'Fenim') atones where there is a
Yedi'ah (at the beginning), so too, does the former (the 'Sa'ir ha'Na'aseh
ba'Chutz') only atone if there was a Yedi'ah (at the end).
(d) If someone entered the Beis-Hamikdash or ate Kodshim without any
knowledge at all of the Tum'ah - then the goats of the Musaf on Yom-Tov and
of Rosh Chodesh throughout the year will atone for him.
(a) The above is the opinion of Rebbi Yehudah; Rebbi Shimon disagrees by the
goats of Rosh Chodesh, which, according to him, atone for - a Tahor person
who eats Tamei Kodshim
(b) We might have otherwise thought that they do not - because, unlike the
cases where a Tamei eats Tahor or enters the Mikdash, the Isur involved is
not a Chiyuv Kareis.
(c) According to Rebbi Meir, all the goats atone for all of the above - with
the sole exception of the Chatas ha'Na'aseh bi'Fenim of Yom Kipur, which
atones for a Tamei person who knowingly enters the Beis-Hamikdash or eats
Kodshim but who then forgets that he did (according to everyone).
(d) The point of so many Korbanos atoning for the same thing is - manifest
in a case where someone transgresses between one and the other.
(a) Rebbi Shimon repeats the distinctions between the goats of Rosh Chodesh,
of the Regalim and of Yom-Kipur - because of the She'eilah that the Rabbanan
are about to ask him.
(b) When they asked Rebbi Shimon whether one could bring a goat that was
designated for one of those days, but not sacrificed, on the other - he
replied in the affirmative.
(c) And when they asked him how this is possible, bearing in mind the
differences between them, he replied - that it does not matter, seeing as
they all come to atone for Tum'as Mikdash ve'Kadashav.
(d) Rebbi Shimon ben Yehudah quotes Rebbi Shimon somewhat differently. He
agrees that the goats of Rosh Chodesh atone for a Tahor person who ate Tamei
Kodesh. But he then go on to say that the goats of ...
1. ... the Regalim - also atone for a Tahor who ate Tamei Kodshim, in
addition to a Tamei who ate Kodshim be'Tum'ah or who entered the
Beis-Hamikdash, without any knowledge at all.
2. ... Yom Kipur too - atone for both of the above in addition to a Tamei
who ate Kodshim be'Tum'ah or who initially entered the Beis-Hamikdash
without knowledge, but who then became aware of it.
(a) When Rebbi Shimon ben Yehudah permitted bringing a goat that had been
prepared on one of the above days, on any one of the others, the Rabbanan
asked him - how it is possible to bring the goat of Rosh Chodesh (which was
designated specifically to atone for a Tahor who ate Tamei Kodshim) on Yom
Kipur (which also comes to atone for a Tamei who ate Tahor Kodshim or who
entered the Beis-Hamikdash)? ...
(b) ... to which he replied - that seeing as they all atoned for a branch of
Tum'as Mikdash ve'Kadashav, it didn't matter.
(c) What atones for ...
1. ... Zadon Tum'as Mikdash ve'Kadashav is - Sa'ir ha'Na'aseh bi'Fenim (in
addition to where there was knowledge at the beginning but not at the end).
2. ... all other sins, from Shogeg to Meizid, from Chayvei Asei to Chayvei
Misos is - the Sa'ir ha'Mishtale'ach.
(a) The Sa'ir ha'Mishtale'ach atones for Yisre'elim and Kohanim alike -
incorporating the Kohen Gadol.
(b) The Kohanim had a Kaparah of their own however - regarding Tum'as
Mikdash ve'Kadashav, where the bull (brought together with the goat) atoned
for whatever the Sa'ir ha'Na'aseh bi'Fenim and the Sa'ir ha'Na'aseh ba'Chutz
atoned for on behalf of a Yisrael.
(c) Rebbi Shimon disagrees. He compares the blood of the bull of the Kohanim
to the Sa'ir ha'Na'aseh bi'Fenim of Yisrael - inasmuch as, just as the
latter, which was not accompanied by Viduy (confession) atoned for Tum'as
Mikdash ve'Kadashev by means of the Zerikas Dam, so too, did the former
atone for Tum'as Mikdash ve'Kadashav of the Kohanim by means of the Zerikas
(d) ... leaving the Viduy made over the bull - to atone for all that the
Sa'ir ha'Mishtale'ach atoned for by a Yisrael.