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Prepared by Rabbi P. Feldman
of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld

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Shevuos 11


(a) Question (Rabah): If incense only has monetary Kedushah, a Tevul Yom (one who immersed today, his will be fully Tahor at nightfall) should not disqualify it!
1. (Beraisa): If incense was put in the grinder, if a Tevul Yom touches it, he disqualifies it.
(b) Suggestion: Perhaps a Tevul Yom disqualifies things with monetary Kedushah!
(c) Rejection (Mishnah): From the time a flour-offering is Hukdash, Me'ilah applies to it; when it is put in a Kli Shares (service vessel), it gets more Kedushah, it becomes disqualified if a Tevul Yom or Mechushar Kipurim (a person who was Tamei, and his Taharah will be complete when he brings a sacrifice) touches it, or if left overnight;
1. These laws only apply after it was put in a Kli Shares, not before!
2. Counter-question (Rav Chisda): If you will say that incense has intrinsic Kedushah, it should be disqualified if left overnight!
i. (Mishnah): Me'ilah applies to the following from when they are Hukdeshu: the Kometz (the handful taken from a Minchah and burned on the Altar), frankincense, incense, the Minchah of a Kohen, the daily Minchah of an anointed Kohen Gadol, the Minchah that accompanies an animal sacrifice;
ii. After they are put in a Kli Shares, they are disqualified if touched by a Tevul Yom or Mechushar Kipurim, or if left overnight.
iii. Inference: Before they are put in a Kli Shares, they are not disqualified if left overnight!
3. Answer (Rabah): Incense is different, the Torah instructs to make it once for the entire year, so mid'Oraisa it is not disqualified if left overnight (Tosfos - until put in the pan in which it is burned).
(a) Question: We still have not answered the question (4:b Daf 10b - how can unblemished sacrifices (or incense) be redeemed), did the Kedushah vanish?)!
(b) Answer (Rabah): When Beis Din (Hekdesh) purchases things needed for the Avodah, it is on condition: anything that is not needed, it should not have intrinsic Kedushah.
(c) Question (Abaye): But you yourself taught that if one is Makdish a male animal to (sell it and use the money to) buy an Olah, the animal gets intrinsic Kedushah!
(d) Answer (Rabah): That is because it was Hukdash for something it itself is fitting for;
1. But if it was Hukdash to (sell it and use the money to) buy Nesachim (the accompanying Minchah), for which it is not fit, it does not get intrinsic Kedushah.
(e) Question (Abaye - Mishnah - R. Yehudah): If the (inner) bull or goat of Yom Kipur was lost, and another was taken in its place and the lost animal was found, we leave it to die;

1. The same applies to goats brought for (a mistaken ruling of the Sanhedrin that caused most of Yisrael to transgress) idolatry.
(f) R. Elazar and R. Shimon say, it is left to graze until it gets a blemish; it is redeemed, the money goes to Nedavah (to buy communal Olah offerings to bring when the Altar is idle);
1. (If an individual's Chatas cannot be offered, it must die, but) the congregation's Chatas is never left to die.
2. Summation of question: If Hekdesh purchases things for the Avodah on condition, we should redeem it unblemished!
(g) Answer (Rabah): These are uncommon sacrifices (and it is rare that one would be lost), Hekdesh does not stipulate about them.
(h) Question (Abaye): It is uncommon that we will redeem a red heifer because a nicer one was found, yet Hekdesh stipulates about this!
1. (Beraisa): A red heifer is redeemed if it is disqualified in any way, if it died, if it was slaughtered (in the wrong place), or if a nicer red heifer was found;
2. If it was slaughtered in the proper place (facing the entrance to the Heichal), it may never be redeemed.
(i) Answer #1 (Rabah): The red heifer is different, since it is Hekdesh Bedek ha'Bayis (it is not fit for the Altar), even if Hekdesh did not stipulate, it can be redeemed unblemished.
1. Question: Why can it be redeemed after it died or was slaughtered - we require that it is stood up and evaluated!
2. Answer: The Beraisa is R. Shimon, who says that only intrinsic Kedushah must be stood up and evaluated (before redemption), not Bedek ha'Bayis.
3. Question (end of the Beraisa): If it was slaughtered in the proper place, it may never be redeemed.
i. (Beraisa - R. Shimon): The red heifer receives Tum'ah because there was a time when it was fitting (to be eaten).
ii. (Reish Lakish): He holds that it was fitting after slaughter, for if a nicer one was found, we would have redeemed the first one. (This contradicts the Beraisa!)
(j) Answer #2 (Rabah): Rather, even though it is uncommon to find a nicer red heifer, Hekdesh stipulates about this because red heifers are very expensive.
(k) (Beraisa): If a red heifer died (without slaughter), it is redeemed.
(l) Question: We do not redeem Kodshim to feed them to dogs!
(m) Answer (Rav Mesharshiya): It is redeemed for its skin.
(n) Question: Does Hekdesh make the Kedushah conditional just so if it dies, we can redeem it for the skin?!
(o) Answer (Rav Kahana): Even the ear of an (expensive animal such as a) camel is worthwhile.
(p) Question (Mishnah - Rabanan): If a goat designated for one of these three atonements was lost, and it was found after a substitute was offered - may the found goat be used for another of the three atonements?
1. R. Shimon: Yes.
2. Rabanan: If it was originally designated for one atonement, how can it atone for something else?!
3. R. Shimon: They all atone for Tum'ah in the Mikdash or with Kodshim - this is essentially what it was designated for!
4. Summation of question: Why didn't R. Shimon answer that when Hekdesh purchases things for the Avodah, it is on condition?
(q) Answer: R. Shimon holds that Hekdesh does not buy things on condition.
1. (Rav Idi bar Avin): Unblemished lambs for the Tamid that were not used by Nisan: R. Shimon forbids redeeming them unblemished, Chachamim permit this.
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