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Previous daf Shevuos 12
1) [line 5] AMATU L'HACHI - because of this
2) [line 10] GEMARA GAMIR LAH - we know it from the tradition that Moshe
received on Mount Sinai (Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai)
3) [line 13] MEKAITZIN BAHEN ES HA'MIZBE'ACH
See Background to Shevuos 11:20.
4) [line 27] VEHA'SHENI - and the other (lit. second) one, i.e. the Sa'ir
la'Sh-m (SE'IR YOM HA'KIPURIM SHE'AVAD)
(a) On Yom ha'Kipurim, a Goral (lot) is performed by the Kohen Gadol to
choose between two identical goats (Vayikra 16:7-10). One (the Sa'ir
la'Sh-m) is offered as a Korban Chatas ha'Nisraf and its blood is sprinkled
in the Kodesh ha'Kodashim (Vayikra 16:15); the other (the Sa'ir la'Azazel)
is dispatched (Mishtale'ach) to Azazel (a hard rocky cliff), from which it
is pushed off to its death (Vayikra 16:21-22).
(b) The blood of the Sa'ir la'Sh-m is also sprinkled on the Paroches and on
the Mizbach ha'Ketores (Vayikra 16:16, 18-19). Its flesh is entirely burned
in the place outside of the city where the ashes from the Mizbe'ach are
deposited (Vayikra 16:27).
(c) A strip of crimson wool was tied between the horns of the Sa'ir
ha'Mishtale'ach before it was led to Azazel. The person who takes the goat
to Azazel becomes Tamei and is required to immerse his body and clothes in a
Mikvah (Vayikra 16:26).
(d) Our Gemara brings the Mishnah (Yoma 62a) that discusses the possibility
of one of the Se'irim dying or getting lost. Specifically, if the lots were
drawn and subsequently the Sa'ir la'Azazel dies, a new pair of Se'irim is
taken and the lots are drawn again. The original Sa'ir la'Sh-m is sacrificed
and the second one is put out to pasture until it develops a Mum, at which
point it may be redeemed (Yoma 64a, RAMBAM Hilchos Avodas Yom ha'Kipurim
5) [line 31] ASHAM SHE'MESU BE'ALAV O SHE'NISKAPRU BE'ALAV - the animal of
the Korban Asham, the owner of which died or achieved atonement [using
another animal] (ASHAM SHENITAK L'RE'IYAH)
(a) Rebbi Yehoshua rules that an Asham animal that is in one of the five
categories for which an animal that is a Korban Chatas is put to death, is
put out to pasture until it develops a Mum, after which it is redeemed. Its
value is used to purchase an Olas Nedavah for the Tzibur. (Rebbi Eliezer
argues, ruling that the Asham animals are likewise put to death.)
(b) The five Chata'os that are put to death by being locked up without food
until they die are:
1. The offspring of a Chatas
6) [line 34] YAVI B'DAMAV OLAH - he shall bring with its value a Korban Olas
Kayitz ha'Mizbe'ach (see Background to Shevuos 11:20)
2. The Temurah (see Background to Temurah 2:1) of a Chatas
3. A Chatas whose owner has died
4. A Chatas of a sheep or goat that became a year old (and is therefore
invalid as a Korban Chatas), whose owner brought a different Chatas to atone
for his sins
5. A Chatas that was lost and was later found with a Mum, whose owner
brought a different Chatas to atone for his sins (Temurah 21b)
7) [last line] MOSAROS - the extra [Korbenos Tamid that are left over at the
end of the "Kobanos year," which ends with the last day of the month of
Adar -- see Background to Shevuos 10:12a-b]
8) [line 1] KAYITZ, KI'VENOS SHU'ACH LA'MIZBE'ACH - "Dessert," like cut
"Benos Shu'ach" figs for the Mizbe'ach. Usually, Benos Shu'ach are
identified with a species of inferior white figs, the trees of which produce
fruits over a 3-year period (Berachos 40b, Rosh Hashanah 15b, Bechoros 8a).
However, the figs to which our Gemara refers are a superior strain. (See a
similar case in the Gemara Nedarim 27a and ROSH there, and see TOSFOS to
Bechoros 8a DH Benos, where Tosfos differentiates between them, calling the
inferior dates Benos *Shu'ach* and the superior dates Benos *Sheva*, which
is also his Girsa in Nedarim ibid. See also the MEFARESH to Nedarim ibid.)
9) [line 1] "... KI CHOL SE'OR V'CHOL DEVASH [LO SAKTIRU OLAH LA'SH-M.]" -
"[No meal offering, which you shall bring to HaSh-m, shall be made with
leaven;] for [you shall not burn] any leaven, nor any honey, [in any Olah
offering of HaSh-m.]" (Vayikra 2:11)
10) [line 4] OLAS HA'OF
The offering of the Olas Ha'of (e.g. in Vayikra 1:14-17) consists of four
1. MELIKAH - On the Sovev (see Background to Yoma 22:13) of the Mizbe'ach,
on the *southeastern* corner, the Kohen cuts the back of the neck of the
bird with his right thumbnail, making sure to cut both Simanim (the trachea
and the esophagus). (If the southeastern corner of the Sovev is crowded with
Kohanim offering the Olas ha'Of, then the additional Olas ha'Of Korbanos are
offered on the southwestern corner of the Mizbe'ach.)
11) [line 4] HA BURCHA - that is (a) a fabrication (RASHI); (b) improper
(RASHI to Kesuvos 63b); (c) ignorance (ARUCH)
2. MITZUY - The Kohen presses the cut part of the head and body of the bird
onto the wall of the Mizbe'ach, above the Chut ha'Sikra (red line) that is
located halfway up the Mizbe'ach.
3. HAKTARAS HA'ROSH - The Kohen salts the head and throws it into the fire
on the Mizbe'ach.
4. HAKTARAS HA'GUF - The Kohen cuts out the crop and surrounding feathers of
the bird (or, according to some Tana'im, the crop and the intestines --
Zevachim 65a) and throws them to the ash-pile at the side of the ramp of the
Mizbe'ach. He then tears the bird apart (Shesiya), salts it, and throws it
into the fire.
12) [line 11] SAKIN MOSHCHASAN L'MAH SHE'HEN - the slaughtering knife "drags
them" to (i.e. makes them fit for) what they are supposed to be
13) [line 22] MERADIM - acts of rebellion which are performed to anger
14) [line 22] "MELECH MOAV PASHA BI" - "The king of Moav rebelled against
me" (Melachim II 3:7)
15) [line 23] "[VA'YIFSHA EDOM MI'TACHAS YAD YEHUDAH AD HA'YOM HA'ZEH;] AZ
TIFSHA LIVNA BA'ES HA'HI." - "[And Edom rebelled against [being] under the
hand of the Yehudah to this day;] then Livnah rebelled at that time."
(Melachim II 8:22)
16) [line 24] SHEGAGOS - unintentional sins (performed due to lack of
17a) [line 26] ZEDONOS - intentional sins (performed due to temptation)
18a) [line 27] ASEH - positive commandments
b) [line 27] LO SA'ASEH - negative commandments
c) [line 28] KERISOS (KARES / MISAH B'YEDEI SHAMAYIM)
(a) Some sins are so severe that they are punished with untimely death.
There are two types of untimely death that are used as heavenly punishments:
Kares, and Misah b'Yedei Shamayim. Kares means "being severed" from the
world and dying before one's time. Misah b'Yedei Shamayim means "death at
the hands of heaven." These punishments are not administered by the courts,
but through divinely administered justice.
d) [line 28] MISOS BEIS DIN MISOS (ARBA MISOS BEIS DIN)
(b) One who deliberately transgresses a commandment that is punishable with
either Kares or Misah b'Yedei Shamayim is punished even if there are no
witnesses to his act, and even if he was not warned at that time of his
transgression that his violation will result in his untimely death.
(c) The commentaries explain that there are two major differences between
Kares and Misah b'Yedei Shamayim (see TOSFOS to YEVAMOS 2a DH Eshes Achiv;
RABEINU YONAH in Sha'arei Teshuvah, 3:6; TIFERES YISRAEL to Sanhedrin 9:6):
1. One who is punished with Kares will die before age 60 (according to Moed
Katan 28a, or before the age of 50, according to the Yerushalmi Bikurim
2:1). One punished with Misah b'Yedei Shamayim will die after the age of 60
but before his time has come (according to Moed Katan ibid., or before the
age of 60, according to the Yerushalmi ibid.)
(d) For a number of specific sins, the Torah assigns a form of Kares in
which the sinner not only dies before his time but is not granted a portion
in the World to Come (Sanhedrin 64b).
2. When one is punished with Kares, even his children (who are minors at the
time of his sin) die, and he bears no further children. When one is punished
with Misah b'Yedei Shamayim, only he is punished and not his children
(Yevamos 55a and RASHI there). (See, however, RIVA in Tosfos to Yevamos 2a
DH Eshes, who maintains that Kares only involves the death of one's children
in the two cases where the Torah adds the word "Ariri." However, he might be
referring to the death of children who are *not* minors.)
3. Some add that when punished with Kares, the sinner's cattle and
possessions slowly expire until he is left destitute -- see Insights to
(a) Arba Misos Beis Din, the four death penalties administered by Beis Din,
in their order of stringency are:
e) [line 29] MEZID - intentional sins (performed due to temptation)
1. Sekilah (stoning, whereby the transgressor is thrust down from the height
of two stories, and then (if he is still alive) a large rock is thrown down
upon him). Some examples of sins for which Sekilah is administered:
desecrating the Shabbos; idol worship; cursing (Chas v'Shalom) G-d;
bestiality; sodomy; certain illicit relations (Sanhedrin 53a).
(b) According to the Rebbi Shimon (Mishnah Sanhedrin 9:3, Gemara Sanhedrin
49b), the order of their stringency is Sereifah, Sekilah, Chenek and Hereg.
2. Sereifah (burning with molten lead, which is poured down the throat).
Sereifah is administered of certain illicit relations (Sanhedrin 75a).
3. Hereg (killing with a sword) (Sefer ha'Chinuch #50). Hereg is
administered for Avodah Zarah, when performed along with most of the
inhabitants of an Ir ha'Nidachas, and for murder (Sanhedrin 76b).
4. Chenek (strangulation) (Sefer ha'Chinuch #47) - Chenek is administered
for wounding one's parents; Zaken Mamrei; Navi Sheker; certain illicit
relations (Sanhedrin 84b).
f) [line 29] SHOGEG - unintentional sins (performed due to lack of
19) [line 36] "ZEVACH RESHA'IM TOE'AVAH" - "the sacrifice of the wicked is
an abomination" (Mishlei 21:27)