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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Shekalim 16

SHEKALIM 16 - Dedicated to the memory of Max (Meir Menachem) Turkel (Yahrzeit: 5 Teves) by his wife Jean and children Eddie and Lawrence.



(a) When the Aron was hidden - the jar of Man, the bottle of anointing Oil, Aharon's stick (with its blossoms and buds) and the box that the P'lishtim sent back together with it (containing a gift for Hashem) were hidden with it.

(b) Yoshiyahu Hamelech hid it when he discovered that Yisrael was destined to go into Galus (for fear that the Aron might go into Galus with them).

(c) We learn from the Pasuk in Divrei Hayamim "Vayomer la'Levi'im ... Tenu es Aron Hakodesh ba'Bayis Asher Banah Shlomoh ... " that Yoshiyahu ordered the Aron ha'Kodesh to be hidden in the labyrinths of the Beis Hamikdash.

(d) Yoshiyahu was afraid to let the Aron go into Galus with the people - either because they may not return it or because its sanctity might be defiled.

(a) The anointing oil was made with spices totaling fifteen hundred Manah - plus one Hin (twelve Lugin) of oil.

(b) Rebbi Yehudah maintains that they prepared the anointing Oil by boiling the spices directly in the olive oil. Rebbi Yossi objected on the grounds that so little oil would inevitably become absorbed in the vast quantity of spices, especially as the fire, the wood and the pot would also absorb some of it. (There was not even sufficient oil to *annoint* the spices, he argued, let alone to boil them in it!)

(c) The anointing Oil was used to anoint the Mishkan plus all its accessories, the Shulchan and the Menorah plus all their accessories, Aharon and his sons for the seven consecutive days of the Milu'im, all subsequent Kohanim Gedolim and some of the kings of Yehudah.

(d) According to Rebbi Yossi, the spices were placed in a large amount of water, the oil on top, and then they were boiled. In this way, the oil only adopted some of the fragrance of the spices.

(a) All Kohanim Gedolim were anointed when they were initiated, but only a king (of Malchei Beis David) who was not the son of a king.

(b) We learn from the Pasuk ...

1. ... "Kum Mashcheihu Ki *Zeh* Hu" (Melachim) - that a king needs to be anointed, but not his son
2. ... "Shemen Mishchas Kodesh Yihyeh *Zeh* Li le'Doroseichem" - that the bottle of anointing oil (containing twelve Lugin - corresponding to the numerical value of "Zeh") would last forever.
(c) We learn that a king should be anointed by a fountain - from Shlomoh Hamelech, whom the Navi ordered to be taken down to the River Gichon and anointed there.

(d) Shlomoh, Yo'ash and Yeho'achaz - were the only three kings of Yehudah who, despite the fact that they were sons of kings, were anointed with the anointing Oil.

(a) Because they were not from the kings of Beis David, Shaul and Yehu were both anointed from a (breakable) earthenware jar, unbreakable) horn. Consequently, their kingdom (unlike that of David - who was anointed from an unbreakable horn) did not last.

(b) The problem with including Yeho'achaz in the list of three kings (in 3d.) - is that the Anointing oil had already been hidden by his father.

(c) The answer to that is - that he was not anointed with the anointing oil, but with afarsemon oil.

(a) Rebbi Yudah Antundarya learns from the Pasuk "Lo Yasur Shevet mi'Yehudah" - that no other tribe (even that of Levi) may usurp the kingship from Yehudah (According to the Korban ha'Eidah, the Pasuk teaches us that even if a Kohen Gadol becomes king, he is not anointed with the Shemen ha'Mishchah - even though he is not a Zar regarding its use - [It is not however clear how we learn this from the Pasuk; neither does the Gemara nor the Pasuk appear to be speaking specifically about a Kohen *Gadol*]).

(b) The first Pasuk precludes *anyone* from another tribe from becoming king, whereas the second is a La'v that only precludes *Kohanim*.

(c) The oldest of Yoshiyahu's sons was Yehoyakim. The reason that the Pasuk refers to Yochanan as the Bechor is - because he was the first to be crowned king.

(d) Yochanan is better known as Yeho'achaz.

(a) Tzidkiyahu and Shalum are indeed one and the same person, and the reason that the Pasuk writes "ha'Shelishi Tzidkiyahu, ha'Revi'i Shalum" is - because although he was the third-born of Yoshiyahu, he was the fourth to rule (since his nephew Yehoyachin ruled before him).

(b) His real name was Matanyah. Nevuchadnetzar changed his name to Tzidkiyahu - as if to say 'Hashem will give you the judgment you deserve if you rebel against me'; and he was also called Shalum because Malchus Beis David terminated (temporarily, until the coming of Mashi'ach) in his days.

(c) It was his nephew Yehoyachin (or Yechonyah) who ruled before him for three months (before going into Galus).




(a) According to Rebbi Yochanan (who holds like Rebbi Meir, that the holy vessels of the Mishkan were measured by an Amah of six Tefachim) - the Aron was *fifteen* Tefachim long.

(b) Assuming they placed the four Luchos (including the two broken ones) - each of which was three Tefachim wide - side by side widthwise across the length of the Aron ...

1. ... that would leave *three* Tefachim empty.
2. Deduct *one* more Tefach (two times half a Tefach) for the thickness of the walls - leaving *two* Tefachim empty;
3. In that space they placed the Sefer-Torah, which was two Tefachim wide.
(c) The width of the Aron was *nine* Tefachim.

(d) The length of the Luchos and of the Sefer Torah was six Tefachim, and the thickness of the walls one Tefach (the same as the thickness of the other two walls). This left *two* Tefachim empty, room to maneuver the Sefer-Torah into the space between the Luchos and the wall of the Aron (since, without it, it would have been impossible to fit it into the space available.

(a) In the opinion of Rebbi Yehudah, who holds that the Amos on the holy vessels comprised *five* Tefachim - the length of the Aron was twelve and a half Tefachim and its width seven and a half Tefachim, of which the walls took up half a Tefach (one finger-breadth for each wall).

(b) According to him - besides the fact that the four Luchos took up the entire length of the Aron, the one Tefach space across the width (unlike the explanation of Rebbi Meir) was divided into two - half a Tefach on one side of the Luchos, and half a Tefach on the other side.

(a) Rebbi Chanina explains the Pasuk in Terumah "ve'Tzipisa Oso Zahav Tahor mi'Bayis u'mi'Chutz" that they were to construct *three* Aronos (of gold, wood and gold). From the extra "Teztapenu" - he learns that the upper-edge (where the wood could still be seen) also had to be overlaid with gold.

(b) Resh Lakish explains ...

1. ... the Pasuk "ve'Tzipisa mi'Bayis u'mi'Chutz" - to mean that the *one* Aron had to be overlaid with gold.
2. ... the extra word "Tetzapenu" - that each board had to be completely overlaid (and not only those parts that were visible after its construction was complete).
(c) According to Rebbi Chanina ben Gamliel, five commandments were written on one of the Luchos, and five on the other. Others opinions maintain that *all ten* commandments were written on each Lu'ach (because "va'Yichtevem al Sh'nei Luchos Avanim" and "mi'Zeh u'mi'Zeh Heim Kesuvim" implies that all ten were written twice on each Lu'ach); *twenty* (once on the front and once on the back) - because the Pasuk implies that the ten commandments were written on each of the Luchos, and *forty* (from the extra words "mi'Zeh u'mi'Zeh Heim Kesuvim" - which imply that they were also written on each side (even though they only measured six by *three* Tefachim - as opposed to the front and the back, which measured six by *six*).

(d) Even according to the last opinion, the commandments were not written on the top and underneath - because they only measured *three by three* Tefachim, too small an area to serve the purpose that Hashem intended. Neither did Hashem want to write five on top and five underneath, because, according to all but the first opinion, it is disrespectful to write only half the commandments on one area.

(a) Between each commandment was written - all the letters of Torah she'bi'Kesav and the Dikdukim (it is unclear what is meant by this - possibly the thirteen principles of Rebbi Yishmael)

(b) "Memula'im ba'Tarshish" ke'Yama Rabah - Just like the ocean is full of numerous types of fish, so too were the Luchos full of the many Derashos which comprise the Torah. Resh Laskish compared this to the waves of the ocean, where, between each large wave, there are many small ones.

(c) According to Rebbi Yehudah, the Pasuk "Lako'ach es Sefer ha'Torah ha'Zeh ve'Samtem Oso mi'Tzad Aron B'ris Hashem" - teaches us that they had to attach a ledge to the side of the Aron on to which they placed Moshe's Sefer-Torah.

(d) Rebbi Meir counters that from the Pasuk "ve'Nasata es ha'Kapores Al ha'Aron Milema'lah, ve'El ha'Aron Titen es ha'Eidus Asher Eten Eilecha" - by virtue of the seemingly inverted order of instructions, this teaches us that, at the end of the forty years in the desert (when the Torah would be completed) they were to place the Sefer-Torah (which is meant by 'ha'Eidus' in this instance) into the Aron.

11) Hashem gave Moshe the Torah in the form of black fire engraved on white fire. What Chazal mean by ...
  1. ... white fire - is the secrets of Torah.
  2. ... Muchleles me'Eish - is the Halachos.
  3. ... Chatzuvah me'Eish - is that it is enveloped with the Souls of
Yisrael. Note: The authentic Sefer-Torah is said to contain 600,000 letters, corresponding to the number of Jewish Souls that left Egypt.

Halachah 2


(a) The Kohanim would prostrate themselves in thirteen locations in the Beis Hamikdash. These were the thirteen gates that opened into the Azarah.

(b) Four of these gates were located on the south side and four on the north - three on the east and the remaining two on the west.

1. The first of the southern gates was called Sha'ar ha'Elyon - because it was the highest of the gates on that side (seeing as Har ha'Bayis was situated on a slope).
2. The second gate is called 'Sha'ar ha'Delek' - because it was the gate through which they brought the wood for the Ma'arachah.
3. The third gate is called Sha'ar ha'Bechoros - because through it they used to bring in the Bechoros which were Shechted on the south side.
4. ... the fourth gate was called Sha'ar ha'Mayim - either because that was the gate through which they brought in the bottle of water for the Nisuch ha'Mayim on Sukos, or because it will the exit point of the stream which flow through the Azarah.
1. The first of the northern gates is called 'Sha'ar Yechonyah' - because that was the gate through which Yechonyah went 'voluntarily' into Galus.
2. The second gate is called Sha'ar ha'Korban - because it was through that gate that they brought the Kodshei Kodshim animals, which were Shechted on the north side of the Azarah.
3. The third gate is called Sha'ar ha'Nashim - because that is the gate through which the women used to enter the Azarah either to lean on their Korban or at least to stand by it.
4. The fourth gate is called Sha'ar ha'Shir - because that is the gate through which they used to bring the musical instruments into the Azarah.
(c) The Eastern gate was called Sh'ar Nikanor. The other two gates on that side were merely two little gates which were located besides it (and whose purpose is described in Midos).

(d) The two western gates are not named - because their names are unknown?

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