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Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Shekalim 11

SHEKALIM 11 - has been generously dedicated by Lee and Marsha Weinblatt of Teaneck, N.J.



(a) When Rebbi Chanima accused the Kohanim Gedolim of haughtiness - he was referring to the fact that the Kohen Gadol would spend more than sixty golden Kikrim (180,000 Shekalim) on building a new ramp. Each subsquent Kohen Gadol refused to take out the Parah via the ramp that his predecessor had constructed.

(b) Rebbi Ula proves that that cannot have been the reason - from Shimon ha'Tzadik, who himself prepared *two* cows, for which even *he* constructed two ramps. It is inconceivable to accuse Shimon ha'Tzadik of conceit. It is more likely therefore, he says, that each new ramp was constructed in honor of the new Parah.

(c) Ledges etc. protruded from the ramps to ensure that the Kohanim should not come too close to watch, and in the process, touch those who were leading the Parah and render them Tamei.

(a) According to Rebbi Akiva, the Gizbar of Hekdesh was permitted to invest Mosar Sheyarei ha'Lishkah, and the Gabai of Tzedakah the Tzedakah-funds, provided they undertook to carry any losses that might accrue, and give all the profits to Hekdesh.

(b) It is permitted to invest money belonging to orphans and even to share the profits.

(c) The difference between orphans and other people is that investing money to share in the profits (even if the owner of the money accepts half of the losses) is called 'close to gain and far from loss', making it 'Avak Ribis' (a Rabbinically-forbidden form of interest), which Chazal did not forbid by orphans, in order to encourage people to invest the money of orphans - nor does it apply to Hekdesh, according to this opinion in the Gemara).

(a) According to Rebbi Chiya b'Rebbi Yosef, Rebbi Yishmael holds that 'Mosar ha'Peiros' refers to the wine, the flour and the oil which, in his opinion, they purchased with the Mosar she'Yarei ha'Lishkah.

(b) 'Mosar Nesachim' is the fourth Sa'ah (i.e. the excess flour, wine and oil that the store-keeper had to supply to Hekdesh after their price decreased).

(c) According to Rebbi Yochanan, Rebbi Yishmael holds that Mosar Peiros, is the fourth Sa'ah. Mosar Nesachim, in his opinion - refers to the 'Birutzin' (i.e. whenever Hekdesh received raw commodities, they would receive a bulging measure; whereas when they re-sold it, they would sell only the exact amount that had been purchased from them. The extra amount was called 'Birutzin').

(d) According to Rebbi Chiya b'Rebbi Yosef, Mosar Nesachim incorporates both the fourth Sa'ah and Birutzin.

(a) It is easily understood, according to Rebbi Chiya b'Rebbi Yosef, why neither Rebbi Akiva nor Rebbi Chanina S'gan ha'Kohanim agree with Rebbi Yishmael by Mosar Peiros - because he (Rebbi Chiya) interprets Mosar Peiros as the excess commodities which Hekdesh would purchase. Consequently, Rebbi Akiva and Rebbi Chanina S'gan ha'Kohanim conform with their opinion that Hekdesh does not go out of its way to make profit.

(b) But according to Rebbi Yochanan, who interprets Mosar Peiros as the fourth Sa'ah, on what grounds would Rebbi Akiva and Rebbi Chanina S'gan ha'Kohanim disagree with Rebbi Yishmael?

(c) According to Rebbi Yochanan, when the Tana says that neither Rebbi Akiva nor Rebbi Chanina S'gan ha'Kohanim agree by Peiros - they do not mean that this does not go to Hekdesh *at all*, but that it does not go to Kayitz ha'Mizbei'ach (like Rebbi Yishmael maintains) but to the purchase of K'lei Shares.

(d) It is possible to purchase K'lei Shares, even with Birutzei Yachid, provided the seller gives it over to the Tzibur properly (as we learnt above - on Daf 10a. , with regard to the woman who made a shirt for her son).

(a) There might be a difference between wet Birutzin and dry Birutzin with regard to the contents of the K'li Shares becoming sanctified - because wet Birutzin, which moves around inside the K'li Shares, enters it, at some point; whereas dry Birutzin, do *not* (so perhaps it does not become sanctified).

(b) The Gemara infers from the Mishnah in Menachos 'ha'Nesachim she'Kidshu bi'Ch'li, ve'Nimtza ha'Zevach, Pasul' - that the Nesech is sanctified only because it was actually inside the K'li. In that case, *dry Birutzin* (which were not sanctified inside the K'li), will not become sanctified. (See also Hagahos ha'Gra.)

(c) If the accompanying Korban was not found ...

1. ... but they found another Korban with which to bring the Nesech - then they should do so.
2. ... and they did not find another Korban with which to bring the Nesech - then it becomes Pasul be'Linah (at dawn-break).
Halachah 3


(a) There would inevitably be leftovers from the annual Ketores - because they prepared three hundred and sixty five Manah each year (eleven Manah more than what was needed for our lunar year; plus three extra Manah for Yom Kipur, from which the Kohen Gadol took only one fistful into the Kodesh Kodoshim.

(b) They would give it to the Hekdesh workers (as will be explained in the Gemara), before buying it back from them.

(c) They did not simply sell it on the market and then buy it back - because the way they did it is more discreet.

(d) They would then buy it back from the workers - if there was already money in the Lishkah from the new year's half-Shekalim, they would use money from the *new* funds; if not, they used money from the *old* funds.

(a) 've'Lo Nimtza Hekdesh Mischalel al Hekdesh' - Whatever work the Hekdesh workers concluded, is Hekdesh, the Gemara currently believes. Consequently, the Gemara is asking, how can one just pay them with the Mosar ha'Ketores, since that would mean transferring Hekdesh against Hekdesh, which is not a proposition.

(b) In fact, what the Hekdesh builders construct is not initially sanctified. So they bring money from Bedek ha'Bayis, which they transfer on to the work to sanctify it, while the money goes out to Chulin. They then buy back the money with the Ketores, in which case the Ketores is now Chulin, and the money, Chulin.




(a) The money on to which they transferred the Kedushah of the Ketores, was used to pay Beis Garmu - the family that used to bake the Lechem ha'Panim, and Beis Avtinas - the family that used to prepare the Ketores ...

(b) ... assuming that they were owed money for last year's work; otherwise, they would get paid like all other Hekdesh workers, who were paid from the funds of Terumas ha'Lishkah.

(c) In the event that nothing is owing to Beis Garmu and Beis Avtinas - the Mosar ha'Ketores went for Kayitz ha'Mizbei'ach.

(d) Rebbi Chiya bar Ba first asked the Sha'leh (believing that perhaps the money went for K'lei Shares - like Sheyarei ha'Lishkah), but then he decided that they had the Din of Mosar Terumah Yeshanah, which went for Kayitz ha'Mizbei'ach.

(a) Rebbi Yossi b'Rebbi Chanina learns from the Pasuk "Kodesh Hi" - that Ketores that was mixed in a K'li Chol, is Pasul.

(b) Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi learn from "Kodesh Hi" - that the Ketores is purchased from the Terumas ha'Lishkah (but not that it needs to be prepared in a K'li Shares).

(c) Rebbi Yochanan interprets the Mishnah 'Hamakdish Nechasav ve'Hayu Bahen *Devarim Re'uyin le'Korbanos'* - by Ketores, and it was an ordinary individual who declared it Hekdesh (like Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi).

(d) Rebbi Yossi ben Chanina reconciles this Mishnah with his own opinion (even according to Rebbi Yochanan's explanation) - by establishing it by one of the workers of Beis Avtinas, who received the leftovers of the Ketores (which had originally been made in a K'li Shares), and which they would later buy back from him).

(a) Shmuel says that they made the grinder in which they ground the Ketores like a K'li Shares.

(b) It transpires that, according to Shmuel, Ketores can be redeemed (to pay the workers), even though it was prepared in a K'li Shares. But since when can something that was sanctified in a K'li Kodesh be redeemed?

(c) Shmuel says 'Hosiru Temimim, Nifdin ki'Temimin' - meaning that they are Kasher for that year, and can be redeemed on Chulin money (in which case, they go out to Chulin). The money goes to Mosar ha'Terumah ha'Yeshanah'. Since the animals go out to Chulin, they can be purchased with money from the Terumah Chadashah for Korbenos Tzibur. The reason that it is possible for Hekdesh to go out out to Chulin, is because ' Lev Beis-Din Masneh Aleihen'.

(d) According to Rebbi Yochanan, 'Hosiru Temimin, Nifdin ki'Pesulei ha'Mukdashin' - meaning that they are sent to graze, and can only be redeemed when they become blemished.

(a) Goats of a Chatas Tzibur (of Rosh Chodesh Adar, for example) that had not yet been brought by Rosh Chodesh Nisan - according to ...
1. ... Shmuel - could be redeemed as they were (Kal va'Chomer from an Olah - which, some explain to mean that, if an Olah which went entirely to Hashem, could be redeemed immediately, how much more so a Chatas, which does *not*).
2. ... Rebbi Yochanan - must graze (like the Olah).
(b) According to Rebbi Shmuel b'Rebbi Yitzchak, it is brought as Kayitz ha'Mizbei'ach - but how can Chata'os be brought as Olos?

(c) Rebbi Chiya answers that it is a condition of Beis-Din that all Korbanos that are that are left over, even Chata'os, are brought as Olos.

(d) The difference between the two answers lies with Korbanos Tzibur that were not leftover. According to Rebbi Yossa, they are not fixed until the Shechitah, whereas according to Rebbi Chiya, they are fixed immediately.

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