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Shekalim 8

SHEKALIM 6-8 (1-3 Teves) - the Dafyomi study for the last days of Chanukah and 3 Teves has been dedicated to the memory of Hagaon Rav Yisrael Zev Gustman ZaTZaL (author of "Kuntresei Shiurim") and his wife (on her Yahrzeit), by a student who merited to study under him.



(a) Rebbi Meir holds that Rosh Chodesh Elul is the date for Ma'aser Beheimah - meaning that those new-born animals born *after* that date may not be Ma'asered together with those born *before* it.

(b) Rebbi Elazar and Rebbi Shimon explain the Pasuk "Lavshu Karim ha'Tzon, va'Amakim Ya'atfu Bar, Yisro'u Af Yashiru" - like this: "Lavshu Karim ha'Tzon" refers to the animals that are conceived early (in Adar); "va'Amakim Ya'atfu Bar", to those that are conceived later (in Nisan - when the valleys are full of corn), and "Yisro'u Af Yashiru" means that both batches, when they are born (one in Av and the other , in Elul), should combine (from the Lashon of 'Rei'a' - a friend) and be Ma'asered (Ya'shiru - Ya'asiru') together. In other words, the date for Ma'aser Beheimah is not Rosh Chodesh Elul, but Tishri.

(c) Ben Azai holds that the Elulim must be Ma'asered separately - because he is undecided whether the Halachah is like Rebbi Meir or Rebbi Elazar and Rebbi Shimon.

(d) According to Ben Azai, if five lambs are born ...

  1. ... in Av, five in Elul and five in Tishri - they cannot be Ma'asered at all.
  2. ... in Tishri and five in the following Av - they are all Ma'asered together in the same pen.
(a) Bearing in mind that Ben Azai's disputants are - Rebbi Meir, Rebbi Elazar and Rebbi Shimon, who lived long after him, how could he issue a compromise on their opinions?

(b) If however, as the Gemara answers, Ben Azai was referring to the same Machlokes between Rebbi Akiva and Rebbi Yishmael, he was entitled to refer to his Rebbe, Rebbi Akiva, in such a lighthearted manner - because he was not a Talmid, but a Talmid-Chaver.

(c) The Gemara ascertains the relationship between Ben Azai and Rebbi Akiva - from the fact that, in Bava Basra (158b), he referred to him in the *second* person, and not in the *third*.

3) Animals that are born *before* the 'Z'man ha'Goren' may be Ma'asered together with animals that are born *after* it.


(a) According to Rebbi Elazar and Rebbi Shimon, if Ma'aser Beheimah would be compared to ...
1. ... the budding of the trees - then it would not be the animals that were *born* before or after that date that would divide them, but all those that were *conceived* (i.e. that the pregnancy was recognizable) before or after it.
2. ... the third of the growth of the produce and the olives (i.e. the stage when they become fit to eat) - then it would be those animals that were born before the twenty-second of Elul (giving them seven days until the first of Tishri to become permitted to eat - given their status of a Korban) and those born after that which would divide the two batches.
(b) Rebbi Shamai compares Ma'aser Beheimah in this regard to produce and olive-trees even according to Rebbi Elazar and Rebbi Shimon in our Mishnah (who go after the time the animals are born and give the dividing date as the first of Tishri) - by establishing our Mishnah according to Rebbi Shimon - who says 'Mechusar Z'man Nichnas le'Dir Lehis'aser' (i.e. it doesn't matter if the animals are Ma'asered before the seven days that renders them fit to be brought as Korbanos).

(c) Rebbi Mana has a problem with this from Ben Azai, who says that the Eluliyim must be Ma'asered separately (as we explained above). Now the Eluliyim implies those animals that are born throughout the month of Elul, and it is unlikely that Ben Azai too, holds like Rebbi Shimon. He is more likely to hold the Rabbanan, who hold 'Mechusar Z'man Eino Nichnas le'Dir'. Nevertheless, he goes after the *birth* (and not after the time that it is *fit to be eaten*, as we suggested above.

(d) The Gemara reconciles both Rebbi Elazar and Rebbi Shimon, and Ben Azai with even the Rabbanan of Rebbi Shimon (even if they were to go after the time that they became fit to be eaten) - by explaining that, Ben Azai is only referring to animals that are born up to the twenty-second of Elul, but those animals that are born between the twenty-second and the twenty-ninth of Elul, must be Ma'asered together with the animals that are born *after* the first of Tishri; similarly, according to Rebbi Elazar and Rebbi Shimon, those animals that are born from the twenty-second of Elul until the twenty- ninth must be Ma'asered together with those that are born in the following year.

(a) Rebbi Yonah's father learns from the Pasuk "Kol ha'Bechor Asher *Yivaled* ... ha'Zachar *Takdish*" - that the Kedushah of a Bechor (that lasts for a year, and during which time the Kohen is permitted to eat it) begins the moment it is born (and not only after seven days, from the time it becomes permitted to eat).

(b) Rav Huna learns the same thing from the Rabbanan who combine all the animals that are born during the year (either from Elul to Elul or from Tishri to Tishri) - including those that are born at the end of the year (during the last week of the month), even though they are not fit to eat until seven days later.

Halachah 2


(a) The Lishkah was a room in the Beis Hamikdash where all the half-Shekalim from the boxes were placed.

(b) The Boxes were marked 'Aleph', 'Beis' and 'Gimel' respectively, so that they would know which one to use first, which to use second and which to use last.

(c) Each of these boxes contained three Sa'ah.

(d) According to Rebbi Yishmael, the boxes were marked in Greek lettering ('Alpha', 'Beta' 'Gamma') - based on the Pasuk in No'ach "Yaf't Elokim le'Yefes' ve'Yishkon be'Ohalei Shem" (from which we derive that the most beautiful aspect of Greek culture - its ancient language - will come to be used in the tents of Shem).

(a) Whoever was chosen to empty the Lishkah, took great care not to wear a garment with a hem, shoes or anything else that might serve as a receptacle - in order that no-one should come to suspect him of becoming poor (as a Divine punishment) because he helped himself to the funds of Hekdesh, or that he enriched himself by doing so.

(b) We derive this concept, from the Pasuk in Bamidbar - "vi'Heyisem Neki'im me'Hashem u'mi'Yisrael", and from the Pasuk in Mishlei - "u'Matza Chein ve'Seichel Tov be'Einei Elokim ve'Adam".




(a) Each of the four or five boxes of straw that the Mishnah in Shabbos permits one to empty from the store-house on Shabbos to make room for guests etc. - was permitted to contain three Sa'ah.

(b) We learn it from our Mishnah - from the boxes with which they emptied the Terumas ha'Lishkah (because it is the way of the Gemara to learn what is unspecified from what is specified.

(c) Each year, they took from the Lishkah (according to the Tiklin Chadtin's explanation) twenty-seven Sa'ah (nine Sa'ah on each of the three designated times in the year).

(a) The Mishnah in Shabbos renders one Chayav for carrying out on Shabbos, sufficient undiluted wine 'to dilute a Kos' - i.e. a quarter of a Revi'is, as we learned in a Beraisa in Pesachim (108b) 'Arba Kosos she'Amru, Yeshnan Revi'is shel Yayin ha'Italki'.

(b) The Shiur of diluted wine for which one is Chayav on Shabbos is a mouthful (less than a Revi'is - although in Shabbos, the Korban ha'Eidah gives the Shiur as a Revi'is).

(c) One and a quarter Titartun is the equivalent of a Revi'is.

(a) According to the Yerushalmi, someone who drinks the four cups consecutively *is* Yotze - and the proof is from Hallel, which need not be repeated at the Seder after having recited it in Shul - in spite of the fact that it was not recited over a cup of wine.

(b) One is Yotze if one drinks each of the four cups in spurts - because Chazal want the wine to be drunk in such a way that it will not cause drunkenness, and that is precisely what one is doing by drinking it in spurts.

(c) One is ...

  1. ... *not* Yotze at the Seder with Matzah of Shevi'is (because Matzah must be "Lachem" - see Bavli Pesachim 38a.).
  2. ... Yotze with wine of Shevi'is.
  3. ... Yotze with Konditun (spiced wine) - because it is still called wine.
  4. ... Yotze with white wine - even though it is a Mitzvah to use red wine.
(d) One may add as much as five parts water to the wine for it to retain its status of wine (because up to there, it still tastes like wine).
(a) Rebbi Yonah of all people, was the one to permit boiled wine - because he suffered from terrible headaches until Shavu'os (usually Chag means Sukos) if he drank un-boiled wine at the Seder.

(b) The noble-woman theorized that Rebbi Yonah's face was shining either because - he drank wine, or because he lent money on interest, or because he reared pigs (the latter two being sources of easy income).

(c) He replied that it was it was none of those three (two of which are forbidden to Jews anyway), but it was due to the Chidushei Torah that he produced - as Shlomoh wrote in Koheles "Chochmas Panav Ansah Bo".

(d) When Rebbi Avahu came to Teverya, Rebbi Yochanan's disciples thought that his shining face must be due to his having discovered a treasure - and they were not far wrong: he had found a new Tosefta that he never before seen, and which contained many Chidushim.

(a) The old 'Temunta' measure of Tzipori was equivalent to the Torah's Lug (six egg-volumes).

(b) Rebbi Yanai's family used to use it for measuring honey.

(c) He referred to it as 'old' (in spite of the fact that he still remembered it) because it was no longer in use.

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