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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

Introduction to Shekalim

Shekalim 2

SHEKALIM 2 - has been generously dedicated by Lee and Marsha Weinblatt of Teaneck, N.J.



(a) On the first of Adar, Beis-Din announced in all towns throughout Eretz Yisrael, that every Jew should bring his half-Shekel.

(b) The second announcement (regarding Kil'ayim) consisted of a warning that whoever had Kil'ayim growing in his field, should diminish the second type of seed until less than a quarter of a Kav per Sa'ah (1/24th) remained.

(c) The Tana does not also inform us that on the fourteenth of Adar the cities without walls read the Megilah - because he is not concerned with the Halachos of the *month* of Adar, only with what happened on the 15th.

(a) The roads, which were spoiled during the rain season, needed to be repaired for the Olei Regalim, who were due to travel to Yerushalayim in a month's time. Alternatively, for the benefit of the murderers be'Shogeg, who required smooth roads to escape to the cities of refuge.

(b) Marking the graves comprised pouring liquid lime around the graves, and its purpose was to warn the Kohanim to avoid the graves. The reason that they chose to do this now was because, like the roads, the lime will have become spoilt during the rain-season, so that the markings needed to be re- done.

3) They announced the Shekalim on the first of Adar - so that Yisrael could bring their half-Shekalim in time for the first of Nisan, which was the date from which the Korbanos had to be purchased from money of that year (and not of the previous year).


(a) They choose the first of Nisan as the new year for purchasing the Korbanos - because they simply followed the pattern set in the first year after they left Egypt, when the Mishkan was set up on the first of Nisan.

(b) Rebbi Tavi learns it from a Gezeirah Shavah "Chodshei" (i.e. "Zos Olas Chodesh be'Chodsho le'*Chodshei* ha'Shanah" - Naso) and "Chodshei" (i.e. "Rishon Hu Lachem le'*Chodshei* ha'Shanah" - Bo).

(c) According to Rebbi Yonah - we already know of the obligation to begin the year of Korbanos with one particular month, only we do not know which one. That is what the Gezeirah Shavah teaches us.

(d) The Beraisa learns from the word "be'Chodsho le'Chodshei" - that one does not need to draw from the Lishkah each month, only once annually.

(a) They announced specifically in Adar *Sheini* ...
1. ... the Shekalim - because to make such an announcement in Adar Rishon, sixty days before they were due, would be too early - and defeat its purpose.
2. ... Kil'ayim - because the plants will not yet be visible, and the whole point of the owners removing what has already grown, will be lost.
(b) They withdrew money from the Lishkah to purchase the Korbanos Tzibur - three times a year, on P'ros ha'Pesach (fifteen days before Pesach), P'ros Shavu'os and P'ros Sukos.



(a) the Gemara initially suggests that the three annual withdrawals were to accommodate people who came from near, from far and from very farrespectively (and the Gemara will hold that the withdrawn half-Shekalim cover only those who *have* already brought their half-Shekel, but not those who have *not*).

(b) The problem with this - is that, in fact, we hold that the withdrawn half-Shekalim cover even those who *have* not yet brought their half-Shekel, in which case there is no reason why one withdrawal should not cover the entire year (even on behalf of those who have not yet paid).

(c) The purpose of the three withdrawals was to create publicity (at the times when the whole of Yisrael was present) to serve as a remindar), that everyone was obligated to bring their half-Shekel - as soon as they were able (those who lived close in time for Rosh Chodesh Nisan, those who lived far in time for Shavu'os etc.)

1. "Kol Nediv Lev Yevi'eha es Terumas Hashem" indicates that only the generous-hearted donated towards the construction of the Mishkan, whereas when it came to the Golden Calf, "Vayisparku Kol ha'Am" - *everyone* did!
2. "Vayotzei Moshe es ha'Am" indicates that Moshe had to lead the people out to meet Hashem at Matan Torah, whereas when it came to sending the spies, "Vatikrevun Elai Kulchem" - they approached Moshe of their own accord!
3. "Az Yashir Moshe u'Venei Yisrael" indicates that they only raised their voices in song to Hashem after taking their cue from Moshe, whereas when it came to crying after the return of the spies, "Vatisa Kol ha'Eidah es Kolam" - they cried of their own accord!
(b) Rebbi Chiya bar Ba makes a similar observation from the Pasuk in Tzefanyah "Achein Hishkimu His'ivu" - meaning that because by the Golden Calf they got up very early (as the Pasuk in Ki Sisa writes "*va'Yashkimu* ba'Boker"), whereas when it came to donating for the Mishkan, the term 'Hashkamah' is not mentioned.

(c) Rebbi Ba bar Acha expressed surprise at the Jewish people, who always give - when they are asked to donate gold towards the Golden- Calf, they give; when they are asked to donate towards the Mishkan, they give? Who can make sense of that?

(d) The Beraisa solves his problem from the Pasuk in Terumah "ve'Asisa *Kapores* Zahav Tahor" - from which we learn that the donations towards the Mishkan served as a Kaparah for the sin of the Golden Calf. So of course they had to give - *that* was the Kaparah!

1. "Daber el B'nei Yisrael ve'Yikchu Li Terumah" - refers to the donation of the silver for the sockets (the Terumas Adanim).
2. "me'Eis Kol Ish Asher Yidevenu Libo Tikchu es Terumasi" - to the donation of the half-Shekel.
3. and "ve'Zos ha'Terumah Asher Tikchu me'Itam" - to the donation of the thirteen raw materials.
(b) 'Terumas Shekalim le'Korban Mah she'Yirtzu Ya'asu (Yavi'u)' - means that the half-Shekel was not fixed, and they were permitted to add to the amount (as e shall see later, on Daf 6a).

(c) The Pasuk "The rich shall not give more, nor the poor, less" - refers to the Terumas Adanim.

(d) The three gifts are also hinted in Parshas Ki Sisa: "Machtzis ha'Shekel Terumah la'Hashem" ... "Yitein Terumas Hashem" ... Laseis es Terumas Hashem".

(a) Rebbi Chelbo, who says that even a person who lived in a walled city can be Yotze Mikra Megilah on the *fourteenth*, explains our Mishnah, which gives the time for a walled city-dweller as the *fifteenth* - to mean if he so wishes.


1. ... the Talmud Bavli explains the word "bi'Zemaneihem" - to mean that unwalled towns read the Megilah specifically on the fourteenth of Adar, and walled towns specifically on the fifteenth.
2. ... Rebbi Chelbo explains it to mean that one may read it either in Adar Rishon or in Adar Sheini.
(c) We try to establish our Mishnah, which emphatically states that the time for people in a walled city to read the Megilah is the *fifteenth*, by Lechatchilah, whereas Rebbi Chelbo speaks by Bedi'eved - if people in a a walled city already read on the fourteenth.

(d) If as Rebbi Chelbo maintains, once someone from a walled city has read on read on the fourteenth, he is Yotze, why does the Beraisa say 'Makom she'Nahagu Likerosah Sh'nei Yamim, Korin Osash *Sh'nei Yamim'*. Why should there ever be a need to read the Megilah twice?

10) Rebbi Chelbo will explain that, in reality, once someone has read on the fourteenth, he is Yotze in any case. Nevertheless, they retained the custom to read on both days - because, if one were to stop someone who read on the fourteenth from reading on the fifteenth, then people would think that one only reads on the fourteenth, and not on the fifteenth. In this way, it would result in the whole Takanah of reading on the fifteenth (in honor of Yerushalayim, as we shall see in Megilah), becoming extinct.


(a) Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi rules like Raban Shimon ben Gamliel who says that all the Mitzvos that apply to Adar Sheini, cannot be fulfilled in Adar Rishon, except for the prohibition of making a Hesped and fasting, which apply to the fourteenth and the fifteenth of both months.

(b) 'Rebbi Chana de'Tzipori Hinhig ke'Raban Shimon ben Gamliel' - means that although, he maintained, one was permitted to follow Raban Shimon ben Gamliel's opinion, he would not actually issue rulings like him.

(c) According to Rebbi Meir, in documents one writes 'Adar Rishon' in Adar Rishon (according to the text of the Gra) and 'Adar' in Adar Sheini. In the opinion of Rebbi Yehudah, they would write 'Adar' in Adar Rishon, and 'Adar Sheini' in Adar Sheini.

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