POINT BY POINT SUMMARY
by Rabbi Ephraim Becker
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
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Previous dafShekalim 4
1) HALACHAH 4: MISHNAH: ACCEPTING GIFTS FROM THOSE NOT OBLIGATED
(a) We accept the half-Shekel from women, Avadim and minors.
2) DEMANDING FROM A MINOR
(b) We do not accept the half-Shekel from Kusim and non-Jews.
(c) As a rule, voluntary offerings are accepted from non-Jews, but
not obligatory offerings (as taught by Ezra).
(d) The extra "Kalbon" is given by the general population but not by
those from whom we do not take security for their Shekel.
(e) One who lends another their Shekel need not add a Kalbon.
(f) One who gives a Shekel, half of which is a loan for another, must
add only one Kalbon.
(g) [R. Meir] He adds two Kablonos.
(h) One who gets a Shekel change must give two Kalbonos.
(i) One who gives on behalf of another is exempt from the Kalbon if
it is a gift, and obligated if it is a loan.
(j) When brothers are obligated in Ma'aser Beheimah, they are exempt
from the Kalbon, and when they are exempt from Ma'aser Beheimah,
they are obligated in the Kalbon.
(k) A Kalbon is a Ma'ah of silver (1/24 of a Selah or 16 Seorim).
(l) [Chachachim] It is half a Ma'ah.
(a) Question: Here we infer that we do not demand the Shekel from
minors, yet in the previous Mishnah we learned that we do not
take security from them, but we *do* demand the half-Shekel!?
3) GENTILES AND KUSIM
(b) Answer: The difference is a minor who does/does not show signs of
(a) Our Mishnah follows the opinion of Rebbi (in a dispute between
Rebbi and R. Shimon b. Gamliel) that Kusim are like Gentiles.
4) SPECIFIC AND NON-SPECIFIC GIFTS OF NON-JEWS
(b) [R. Eliezer] Our Mishnah is speaking about Gentiles (when it
speaks of not accepting their offerings), and it may hold that
Kusim are considered as Jews (a Bereisa seems to support this).
(c) Our Mishnah which teaches not to accept Kinin of Zavin and Zavos
is a contradiction to R. Elazer, since there is no such Tumah by
(d) The Reisha speaks of non-Jews and the Seifa speaks of Kusim.
(a) [R. Yochanan] At the outset we did not accept specific gifts for
Bedek HaBayis nor general gifts from non-Jews, whereas later we
accepted only general gifts.
(b) [Reish Lakish] We do not accept anything from non-Jews.
(c) Question: A Bereisa argues with R. Yochanan (implying that we do
not take anything from the non-Jews, apparently at any time).
(d) Answer #1: The Bereisa speaks of specific gifts.
(e) Answer #2: The Bereisa is only speaking at the offset.
(f) Question: A Mishnah is a challenge to Reish Lakish (teaching that
non-Jews may offer another person's worth).
(g) Answer: That Mishnah means that we accept an Olah from him.
(h) Question: But the Mishnah speaks of *Nidarin* which cannot speak
of an Olah!?
(i) Answer: It means Nidarin when he accepts a Jew's Neder upon
himself (or the reverse - Taklin Chadetin).
(j) Question [on Reish Lakish]: If a non-Jew can bring Nesachim, then
he must be able to donate a Kli Shares (a specific gift), as well
(for the surplus)?
(k) Answer: As in the Mishnah (which would be problematic even
according to R. Yochanan since it permits specific gifts), the
gift intended for Shamayim goes to Bedek HaBayis. (Taklin
(l) Reish Lakish based his opinion on the fact that the Pasuk in Ezra
seems to prohibit all forms of non-Jewish participation.
5) GIVING THE KALBON
(m) It would appear from the Pasuk in Nechemyah that we do not even
accept donations from non-Jews for local infrastructure
(cisterns, walls, towers, etc.).
(a) Our Mishnah (which obligates all donors to give a Kalbon) is R.
Meir (who holds that the Kalbon is obligatory upon all).
6) BROTHERS AND PARTNERS GIVING MA'ASER
(b) Question: What is his source for the addition?
(c) Answer: To compensate for impurities, to make it identical
(KaZeh) to the celestial coin of fire.
(d) [R. Elazar] The Mishnah which obligates one who receives a Shekel
change to give two Kalbonos is the opinion of R. Meir (This
opinion is indicated in the Bereisa).
(e) [Rav] This requirement to give two Kalbonos is according to all
opinions (one Kalbon for bringing a non-standard coin, and one
for getting change).
(f) According to Rav, R. Meir would require *three* Kalbonos.
(g) This was, indeed, explicit in a citation of Rav.
(a) They are obligated in Kalbon and exempt from Ma'aser in the case
where they split up (the inheritance) and re-joined as partners.
(b) The reverse would be the case if they did not divide.
(c) [R. Elazar] A split is only when they divided the assets by
valuation (not just numerically) [Yesh Bereirah].
(d) [R. Yochanan] Even a numerical split is considered a division
[Ein Bereirah] and a purchaser (or one who receives a gift) is
exempt from Ma'aser Beheimah.