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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Shabbos 150



(a) Hiring workers is forbidden - because of "mi'Metzo Cheftzecha" (Yeshayah).

(b) Someone who hires workers on somebody else's behalf - transgresses the La'av of 'Lifnei Iver'.

(c) If a Melachah is forbidden on Shabbos (such as hiring workers), one is also forbidden to wait by the border on Shabbos to perform it after Shabbos had terminated; whereas for a Melachah that is permitted on Shabbos (such as guarding one's fruit), one is also permitted to wait by the border.

(d) Aba Shaul said 'Kol she'Ani Zakai ba'Amiraso, Zakai Ani Lehachshich Alav'.

(a) Rav Ashi objects to Rav Papa's explanation (that 'one's friend' in our Mishnah means a gentile) - on the grounds that 'Amirah le'Nochri Shevus', so how can the Tana possibly permit it?

(b) The Chidush of our Mishnah - lies, not in what the Tana actually *writes*, but in the *inference*: asking a friend to hire workers is forbidden, but to say to a friend on Shabbos: 'Now let's see whether you will come and see me this evening' is permitted, despite the fact that they both understand that he intends to employ him to work for him.

(c) We learn this from "mi'Me'tzo Cheftzecha, ve'Daber Davar" that private matters where the Isur is not said, only implied, are permitted on Shabbos ('Dibur Asur, Hirhur Mutar').

(a) We learn from the above principle - that 'Hirhur La'av ke'Dibur Dami'.

(b) Thinking in a bathroom is Asur - not because 'Hirhur ke'Dibur', but because of the Pasuk "ve'Haya Machanecha Kadosh" (Ki Seitzei) - and Dibur is not mentioned in that Pasuk.

(c) The word Davar, in the Pasuk "ve'Lo Yir'eh Becha Ervas Davar" - comes to teach us that one is forbidden to speak Divrei Torah in front of a naked gentile (how much more so in front of a naked Jew).

(d) We learn from the Pasuk "ve'Ervas Avihem Lo Ra'u" - that, in spite of the Pasuk in Yechezkel "Asher Basar Chamorim Besaram" (which compares the flesh of gentiles to that of donkeys) the Ervah of a non-Jew is considered Ervah - with regard to speaking Divrei Torah in front of it.

(a) One is permitted to verbalize Cheshbonos shel Mitzvah, and fix amounts of Tzedakah for the poor on Shabbos - because the Pasuk writes "mi'Metzo Cheftze*cha*" etc. from which Chazal derive that it is only strictly personal matters that are forbidden on Shabbos, but not Cheshbonos shel Mitzvah.

(b) Besides matters of life-danger, communal matters at governmental level and various kinds of public debates - also Shiduchim, engaging a Rebbe to learn with one's children Torah or a trade, are all included in Cheshbonos shel Mitzvah.

(c) Cheshbonos shel ...

1. ... Melech (from the word Lehimalech [to ask advice] or Mah Lach - meaning what does it concern you?) - are Cheshbonos that do not really effect one personally, such as discussing how much it costs to build such and such a house, purely out of curiosity.
2. ... Mah Be'kach - are Cheshbonos that have become obsolete.
(d) Cheshbonos 'Shel Mah Be'kach' - we just explained. 'Cheshbonos she'Avru' - means Cheshbonos that have passed (for example, discussing the payments of workers who have already completed their jobs; however, the subject is not completely obsolete - e.g. if the workers have not yet been paid.



(a) When that Chasid declined to repair his fence - a caper-bush (which has many branches) miraculously grew and filled in the gap. Now a caper-bush produces a variety of edible parts (the fruit, the peel and the branches), so it turned out to be a source of income for that Chasid.

(b) If a Melachah could conceivably be performed on Shabbos (e.g. walk from outside the Techum - if there were huts dotted along the way, that would bring that entire area within the Techum) - then one is permitted to mention that one is going to perform it after Shabbos. Consequently, one may inform one's friend that one intends embarking on a journey beyond the Techum Shabbos - after Shabbos, despite the fact that walking that distance on Shabbos (since currently, there are no huts) is forbidden.

(c) Our Mishnah, which forbids waiting by the border to bring fruit after Shabbos - is speaking about fruit that is attached, which may not be picked on Shabbos under any circumstances; consequently, one is neither permitted to speak about bringing in such fruit, nor is one permitted to wait by the border until nightfall to fetch it. With regard to fruit that is detached, both are permitted.

(d) The Beraisa which forbids waiting by the border to bring in straw - is speaking about bad straw which smells, and which he would not be permitted to bring in - even if there *were* Mechitzos, since it is Muktzah.

(a) The Tana permits waiting by the border to bring the needs of a Kalah (such as cutting a myrtle twig) or of a dead person (to bring his coffin and shrouds) -because it is a Mitzvah (Cheftzei Shamayim, and not Cheftzei Atzmo - which is what the Navi forbids).

(b) The coffin and shrouds for a dead person are surely detached. So why is waiting for them by the border confined to doing so for a dead person? It ought to be permitted to *anyone*, as we explained above?

(c) When we speak of waiting by the border for the needs of a dead person - we are not speaking about bringing his shrouds or coffin (that, or similar needs, would be permitted for the needs of *anybody, dead or alive), we are speaking about waiting to cut the boards of his coffin, or his shrouds to the right size - for which there is no conceivable Heter, and which would therefore be forbidden for a live person.

(a) Rebbi Elazar ben Antignos quotes Rebbi Eliezer ben Ya'akov, who forbids work to be performed before Havdalah has been recited. Now where does one obtain wine (without which - the Gemara thinks - Havdalah cannot be recited) out in the fields.

(b) Nor is Havdalah in the Amidah sufficient - because we have already learnt that someone who recites Havdalah in the Amidah, nevertheless requires a second Havdalah over a cup of wine.

(c) The Gemara also quotes the Yerushalmi, which permits work to be performed by merely saying 'Hamavdil Bein Kodesh la'Chol' - in which case, Havdalah in the Amidah will also be effective. (Note: Havdalah over a cup of wine is necessary in order to eat, but not to perform Melachah).

(a) Had Aba Shaul (when he said 'Kol she'Ani Zakai ba'Amiraso, Rashai Ani le'Hachshich Alav') refered to the Reisha of our Mishnah, which *forbids* waiting by the border to hire workers or to bring fruit - then what he should have said was 'Kol she'*Eini* Zakai ba'Amiraso, *Eini* Rashai be'Chasheichaso'.

(b) Nor can we apply it to the Seifa, which permits waiting by the border to guard one's field - because then he should have inverted the order and said: 'Kol she'Ani Zakai ba'Chasheichaso, Rashai Ani ba'Amiraso'. Why is that? Because waiting by the border is specifically permitted by the Mishnah, talking about it is *not*.

(c) Aba Shaul refers to a Halachah quoted by Rav Yehudah Amar Shmuel, who says that one may strike a deal with one's friend and say 'You look after the fruit in your area that belongs to *me*, and I will look after the fruit in my area that belongs to *you*. And it is with reference to *that* Halachah that Aba Shaul said 'Kol she'Ani Zakai ba'Amiraso, Rashai Ani le'Hachshich Alav'.

(d) The Klal of Aba Shaul comes to include - waiting by the border to fetch a myrtle-twig for a bride or a coffin and shrouds for a dead person (as we discussed above - in 6b and c).

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