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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Shabbos 149



(a) According to Abaye, the Tana forbids reading from lists - because one may come to read business documents or letters which are of no consequence.

(b) The Gemara objects to the suggestion that, according o Rav Bibi, it will be permitted to read from a list which is too high to reach - because firstly, why would Rav Bibi not be concerned too, that one may come to read documents? and secondly, because Rabah has already taught us not to differentiate, in these matters, between heights (with regard to the Halachah of not reading by the light of a lamp - even if the lamp is ten storeys high)?

(c) The Gemara then thinks that, if writing is written on a low wall, it will be permitted, according to Abaye, on the grounds that one is unlikely to confuse a wall with a document (since the one is attached, the other detached).

(d) This too, the Gemara rejects, because why should Abaye not be concerned that one may come to erase the writing?

(a) The contention that no-one will confuse a wall with a document only applies to a wall which is attached, but not to a tablet or ledger (which will therefore remain Asur).

(b) Everyone agrees that one is permitted to read script that is *carved* on a *wall* (as we just explained).

(c) The Machlokes between Rav Bibi and Abaye - is by writing that is written on a high wall, where the concern that one may come to read it does not apply (because nobody will confuse a wall with a document. And as for Rabah, who does not make a distinction between one height and another, the Tana, Rebbi Acha does not hold like Rabah, and Abaye, who holds 'She'ma Yikra', follows his opinion. Rav Bibi holds like the Tana Kama of Rebbi Acha (and so does Rabah), with the result that he will forbid even writing that is written high on a wall.

(a) The Tana Kama forbids looking in a mirror on Shabbos - because the sole reason for looking in a mirror (in those days) was for shaving purposes. Conseuently, Chazal were concerned that one may come to take the mirror, and remove excessive hair with one of its sharp edges.

(b) If the mirror is fixed to the wall, argues Rebbi Meir - one is hardly likely to take it and to sever excessive hairs with it.

(c) Rebbi Meir's opinion, is that of Rebbi Acha quoted in the last question, who does *not* decree something which is very high and out of reach because of something which is within reach; whereas the Tana Kama *does*.

(a) The Beraisa forbids reading captions underneath pictures and statues - for the same reason as that under discussion; namely, because one may come to read documents.

(b) We learn from "Al Tifnu el ha'Elilim" - that one is forbidden even to look at statues and busts of people (provided they are made for idolatrous purposes - Tosfos DH 'u'Deyukni').

5) 'B'nei Chaburah ha'Makpidin Zeh al Zeh Ovrin (be'Yom-Tov) Mishum ...
1. ... Midah - means that people who are fussy with each other are advised not to borrow from each other on Yom-Tov, because they are bound to use a measuring-vessel when borrowing something which is normally measured, which is forbidden;
2. ... u'Mishum Mishkal - extends the prohibition to something which is usually weighed, because they are bound to weigh it (even though other people might not);
3. ... u'Mishum Minyan - extends to things that are normally counted, because one will come to commit the Isur of mentioning the total (e.g. after having borrowed sixty nuts, for example, they will say 'Give me another forty to make up a hundred', which is forbidden.
4. ... u'Mishum Lovin u'Por'in - whenever they borrow, they will make a point of saying 'Halveni', and not 'Hash'ileni', implying that he must return it as it is (whilst 'Halveni' implies to use it up, and to return the equivalent (like it is with money). And we have already learnt in the first Mishnah in the Perek that this is forbidden.
5. ... u'ke'Divrei Hillel, Af Mishum Ribis' - means that people who are members of such a group of people will inevitably come to give interest, because they will always feel obligated to give a little extra (to repay the favor), and, because they are fussy with each other, they do not forgo the extra amount, as other people would do (thereby taking it out of the realms of Ribis.



(a) Rav Yehudah quoting Rav said - that one is permitted to lend one's wife and children on interest - to teach them how bad interest is.

(b) This is not forbidden - because whatever his wife and children (who eat at his table) own, really belongs to him anyway.

(c) When the Tana writes 'u'Vilevad she'Lo Yiskaven La'asos Manah Gedolah Keneged Ketanah' - he is not referring to the members of his family, but to other guests.

(d) The reason that partners etc. are forbidden to distribute different size portions by drawing lots, even during the week - is because of 'Asmachta', because we rule 'Asmachta Lo Kanya'; a gambler gambles to win. If he knew that he would lose, he would not gamble. Therefore, when he loses and is obligated to pay, he does so unwillingly, which makes the recipient into a kind of a thief.

(a) 'Matilin Chalashin al ha'Kodshim *Aval Lo al ha'Manos' - means that the Kohanim may not draw lots for the weekday sacrifices (of the previous day), on Yom-Tov.

(b) We may have thought that the Kohanim are permitted to draw lots for the Korbanos of Erev Yom-Tov on Yom -tov - in order to avoid the bickering that accompanied the distribution of the quarrelsome Kohanim, like the Pasuk in Hoshei'a "ve'Amech ki'Merivei Kohen" testifies.

(a) The word "Tzei" that Hashem said to Ach'av - meant that he was to leave Hashem's presence. From here we learn the punishment of someone who causes another Jew to get punished.

(b) Perhaps the reason there, retorts the Gemara, is not because Navos volunteered to lead Ach'av to his death, but because he did so by lying (by becoming a false spirit in the mouths of Ach'av's prophets)?

(c) Who says that "Shesei Gam *Ata* *ve'ha'Arel*" refer to Tzidkiyahu and Nevuchadnetzar - respectively? Perhaps both words refer to Nevuchadnetzar exclusively, and what the Pasuk is saying is "Shesei Gam Ata (Nevuchadnetzar) - *ve'He'arel* - and let *your* Milah grow long (not *Tzidkiyahu's*).

(d) Tzidkiyahu did not deserve to be punished for causing Nevuchadnetzar embarassment - since he was in no way responsible for Nevuchdnetzar's crime and subseunt punishment (he was a total Ones).

(a) "Gam Anosh la'Tzadik Lo Tov" - means that someone who causes a Tzadik to be punished is *not good* (which is synonymous with bad). And what bad will befall him? The Pasuk "... ve'Lo Yagurcha Ra" - teaches us that the bad that will befall him is that he will be forced to leave the vicinity of the Shechinah.

(b) "Eich Nafalta mi'Shamayim ... Cholesh Al Goyim" - teaches us how Nevuchadnetzar used to draw lots to determine the order that he would commit homosexuality with the captured kings.

(c) When he writes "Kol Malchei Goyim Shachvu be'Chavod, Ish be'Veiso" - the Navi refers to the satisfaction that all the kings experienced when they heard that Nevuchadnetzar had died.

(d) We learn from the Pasuk "Nachah, Shaktah Kol ha'Aretz, Pitzchu Rinah" - that, as long as Nevuchadnetzar was alive, the kings never laughed. The moment he died, they laughed again.

(a) It is forbidden to 'stand' in Nevuchadnetzar's house - because, as Yeshayah prophesied, Hashem decreed that it should become inhabited by demons. Now demons do not live in an inhabited house. Consequently, someone who lives or who stands for a short while in the house, nullifies Hashem's decree, by chasing the demons away.

(b) "Shesei Gam Ata, ve'he'Arel" hints to the three hundred Amos that Nevuchadnetzar's Orlah stretched - because the numerical value of 'Orel' is three hundred.

(c) When the inhabitants of Gehinom heard that Nevuchadnetzar was coming to join them - they were concerned that he would have jurisdiction over them once again (and they hated him for the way he had demeaned them earlier).

(d) The Bas Kol said to him: "Redah ve'Hashkevah es Arelim".

(a) When Yeshayah eulogized Nevuchadnetzar with the words "Eich Shavas Noges, *Shavsah Madhevah*" - he meant that the King who used to say 'Medod ve'Havei' (count out silver and gold and bring it) had now gone to his final resting-place where he would not need any more money.

(b) Nevuchadnetzar set about proving his supreme dominion over the animals - by riding on a lion and using a snake as his reigns.

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