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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Shabbos 146



(a) When smashing open a barrel of dried figs on Shabbos - one should take care not to deliberately fashion a neat opening.

(b) Rebbi Yehudah forbids piercing a hole in the lid of a barrel - because he considers it Mesaken (Pischa).

(c) The Rabbanan permit it. In their opinion, it is not common to make an opening in the lid of a barrel.

(d) Stopping up a hole in a barrel with wax is forbidden - because of Memarei'ach.

(a) Rebbi Oshaya limits the Din of 'Shover Adam es ha'Chavis Le'echol Heimenah Gerogros' to when the dried figs are pressed together - because he establishes the Mishnah like Rebbi Nechemyah, who forbids taking a K'li for any function other than that for which is was manufactured (and the Sayaf [sword-like knife] was made to cut cakes of dried figs, not loose ones). The Halachah is not like him, but like the Chachamim, who permit a K'li to be taken even for other functions.

(b) Rebbi Oshaya established the Mishnah like Rebbi Nechemyah - because, otherwise, why does the Tana mention 'Gerogros', and not 'Peiros'?

(c) 'Choslos' are a sort of temporary basket made of palm branches, into which they would place bad dates to ripen.

(d) The author of the Beraisa which permits even taking the Choslos apart (to get to the dates) or to cut them open is the Rabbanan, whereas the author of the Beraisa which forbids this, is Rebbi Nechemyah (quoted earlier). It is unclear what their Machlokes is regarding 'Mafki'a', which does not appear to require a K'li.

(a) The Sha'aleh of piercing a hole in the side of a barrel - is whether one's intention is to make a new opening (which is forbidden), or just to obtain a larger quantity of wine (but not as a permanent opening, since he did not do it in the conventional manner) - Bear in mind that Tikun Pesach is only de'Rabbanan.

(b) Even though the previous case is Asur, Raban Shimon ben Gamliel nevertheless permits slicing off the top of the barrel below the lid - because in this case, his intention is certainly to obtain more wine, and not to create a new opening, because had it been, he would simply have opened the lid.

(a) The reason that the Rabbanan permitted piercing a hole in the top of the lid - is because it is quite unconventional to do so, since he may then as well remove the lid. Whereas piercing a hole at the side of the lid is not so uncommon (because sometimes, one does this in order to avoid removing the lid - to prevent dirt and insects from falling into the wine). Consequently, the Rabbanan would agree with Rebbi Yehudah that it is forbidden.

(b) According to Rav Chisda, they argue about piercing a hole at the side (which Rebbi Yehudah holds is relatively common; but even he concedes that on top, is uncommon, and is therefore permitted.

(c) 've'Lo Yikavena mi'Tzidah' according to Rav Chisda - means not on the lid (which the Rabbanan permit), but on the side of the barrel itself.

(a) By Torah law, any hole that is not to take in as well as to let out, is not considered an opening (with regard to Hilchos Shabbos), and one will not be Chayav for making it. However, the Rabbanan decreed even by one that is to let in exclusively, or out exclusively - because of the window of a chicken-run, which is meant to is meant let in fresh air and to let out the stale air. Now it is certain that by a chicken-run, one does not add to the window, since that would allow small Sheratzim (such as weasels) to enter and cause havoc among the chickens. Consequently, they did not extend the decree to adding to an existing hole.

(b) Some nevertheless forbid adding to a hole in a vessel - because it sometimes happens that one initially fails to make the hole of the chicken-run large enough to serve its dual purpose, and it is therefore necessary to enlarge it.

(c) Rav Nachman quotes Rebbi Yochanan, who rules like the second opinion which forbids it.

(d) The Beraisa permits unstopping a hole that became stopped up.




(a) According to Rabah - below the level of the wine is still Lishmor. It is only below the level of (the top of) the dregs that is considered Lechazek, one is therefore forbidden to unstop.

(b) A Bayis Sasum is a room that has been sealed but whose door-posts still stand. Paratz es Petzimav means that one has also taken down the door-posts.

(c) Part of the rights of partners who share a courtyard are based on the number of doorways that open out from their respective houses to the courtyard (four Amos for each doorway). Even if the doorway is sealed, they nevertheless retain those rights, until the stage of Paratz es Petzimav, when the doorway is no longer considered to be a doorway. Similarly, a house that contains a corpse is considered a grave, to be Metame four Amos all around it, only if the doors were both sealed and Paratz es Petzimav; otherwise, it still retains its status as a house, and not that of a grave, in which case, it is not Metamei four Amos all around it.

(d) Abaye proves from here that stopping up a hole to negate its original status (Lechazek) must be very strong (i.e. below the level of the dregs, and not just of the wine), like Paratz es Petzimav - before it can negate its status as an opening.

(a) One may not cut a hollow cane to size, to use as a tap for a barrel.

(b) One may re-place such a cane in the tap-hole.

(c) The Machlokes between Rav and Shmuel, whether one may place a cane in the tap-hole in the first instance - is simply whether Chazal decreed, because one may come to fashion the cane (Rav) or not (Shmuel).

(d) In spite of the principle that in matters of Isur, we rule like Rav against Shmuel, here we will rule like Shmuel. Why is that? Because this Machlokes is also a Machlokes Tana'im, and Rebbi Yochanan is quoted as ruling like Rebbi Yashiyah, with whose opinion Shmuel concurs.

(a) Rav forbids stopping a hole with lubricant oil on Shabbos; Chazal decreed because it is similar to wax, which is Asur d'Oraysa.

(b) Some forbid placing a myrtle-leaf in the hole as a stopper - either because one might come to fashion a pipe (to fit into the barrel), or because he may come to pluck the leaf from the tree.

(c) The difference between the two reasons will be by someone who has a number of cut leaves. If he only has one leaf, we are afraid that the one might break and that he will then go and pluck another one - but this does not apply to someone who has a number of leaves. Whereas the fear that he may fashion a pipe still exists.

(a) With regard to carrying through the streets - by wearing them ...
  1. Soft furs are permitted.
  2. Hard ones are not.
(b) When they brought Rav medium furs, in the manner described above, to sit on, he declined to use them. Everyone thought that this was because Rav forbade medium furs to be carried in this way.

(c) Rav's real reason was out of deference to Rav Kahana and Rav Asi (Talmidei-Chaver of his), who were sitting on the ground.

(a) One may take ...
  1. ...a cooked dish on Shabbos - and place it inside a pit, to prevent it from going off in the heat.
  2. ... a jar of cold water - and place it inside bad water, to prevent it from becoming hot on a hot day?
  3. ... a jar of cold water that one wishes to heat - and put it outside in the sun.
(b) Someone whose jacket, shall we say, fell into a pool of water whilst he is traveling - may continue to wear it (in spite of the fear that he may come to wring it out - until he reaches the first courtyard. Once he reaches the first courtyard however, he must remove the jacket, and hang it up in the sun to dry - but in a discreet place, where it will not be seen by the public (because of Mar'is ha'Ayin). That is the opinion of the Tana of our Mishnah.

(c) The Chidush of our Mishnah, which permits placing a cooked dish into a pit - is that, we are not concerned that he may, in the process, come to straighten the ground (as we learnt above with regard to arranging a barrel on the ground).

(d) There is no Chidush in telling us that one place a jar of good water into bad water; this case is only mentioned together with the following one (of heating cold water in the sun), which comes to teach us that Chazal did not decree the sun because of hot ashes.

(a) Rebbi Elazar and Rebbi Shimon forbid hanging up wet clothes to dry - even if it is done discreetly ('Kol Makom she'Asru Chachamim Mipnei Mar'is ha'Ayin, Afilu be'Chedrei Chadarim Asur').

(b) Rav rules like Rebbi Elazar and Rebbi Shimon.

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