(Permission is granted to print and redistribute this material
as long as this header and the footer at the end are included.)


prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

Previous daf

Shabbos 145



(a) 'ha'Machlik ba'Anavim' - means that the baker squeezes grapes on the bread, in order to create a sheen on the crust.

(b) The bread must have been kneaded with fruit-juices (and not with bread), because otherwise, it would be Huchshar anyway.

(c) Rav Papa explains that the Tana'im are arguing about whether liquid that is destroyed is considered a liquid or not - the Tana Kama holds that it is *not*; Rebbi Yehudah, that it *is*. Both agree that liquid that is extracted for food, is *not* considered a food. Note: This is no reflection on the Halachah, since the Gemara could not have said that both agree that it *is* considered a food - See Tosfos DH ' de'Kuli Alma'.)

(d) Alternatively, they argue over liquid that stands to be used for creating a sheen: the Tana Kama holds that it is *not*; Rebbi Yehudah holds that it *is*. Both Tana'im will again hold that 'Mashkeh ha'Ba le'Ibud' is not called a Mashkeh.

(a) If someone bruises fruit to soften it - he is pleased when some of the juice drips on to the fruit, because it makes it more tasty; whether if he bruises it in order to salt it - he is not interested in the juice that comes out. Therefore, in the former case, the fruit is Huchshar, in the latter case, it is not.

(b) If he bruises the fruit in order to ascertain whether the oil is ready or not - Rebbi Yehudah holds that the fruit *is* Muchshar Lekabel Tum'ah, because juice that goes to waste is considered juice; the Tana Kama holds that it is *not*.

(a) Rav permits squeezing the juice of fish - even into an empty dish.

(b) Everyone agrees that squeezing pickled foods to eat the pickles - is permitted.

(c) Rav and Shmuel agree that someone who squeezed pickled foods for the juice - is Patur Aval Asur; he is Patur, because the juice that emerges is not the juice that was there originally (therefore it is not similar to Dash, of which Mefarek is a Toldah); but it is nevertheless Asur, since the Rabbanan decreed on it because of olives and grapes, whose juice is Asur mi'd'Oraysa.

(d) Shmuel puts squeezing cooked foods, even for the juice, on a par with the juice of pickles. According to him, both are Patur Aval Asur.

4) Rav Dimi told Abaye that he heard from the mouth of Rebbi Yirmiyah, quoting Rebbi Zeira, quoting Rebbi Chiya bar Ashi - that *Rav* permitted squeezing fish-juice into an empty dish.


(a) Rebbi Yochanan permits squeezing pickles and boiled vegetables to eat them; but if he squeezes them for their juice, he is Chayav a Chatas.

(b) When the Beraisa writes 'Sochtin Kevashim be'Shabbos le'Tzorech ha'Shabbos' - it does not differentiate between squeezing them for the food or for the juice; but both Rebbi Yochanan and Rav and Shmuel agree that it is forbidden to squeeze pickles for the juice (according to Rebbi Yochanan, one is even Chayav Chatas, according to Rav and Shmuel, it is at least Asur).

(c) Rav Chiya bar Aba testifies in Rav's name, with regard to ...

1. ... pressing fruit for the juice - that min ha'Torah, one is only Chayav for pressing olives and grapes (but not for any other fruits - even for the juice).
2. ... one witness repeating in Beis-Din what he heard from another - that that is not acceptable in any area of Halachah other than for the testimony of a woman - i.e. to permit a woman whose husband has disappeared to get married.
(d) The reason that Chazal were more lenient by the testimony of a woman than in other areas of Halachah - is because otherwise, the unfortunate woman would remain an Igunah for the rest of her life. This is not a question of permitting a married woman to get married (Chas ve'Shalom) - because anyone who gets married (i.e. is Mekadesh a woman), does so on the Da'as of Chazal (as we say under the Chupah - 'ke'Das Moshe *ve'Yisrael'*). Consequently, Chazal always reserve the right to nullify the Kidushin retroactively, which is what they did in this case.



(a) 'Eid mi'Pi Eid' is Kasher by a Bechor' - means that one witness is believed to quote another witness, who saw that the blemish that appeared on the Bechor after it reached the hand of the Kohen, came by itself, and not through the actions of the Kohen (since all Kohanim were suspected of blemishing the Bechoros after they received them).

(b) We now amend Tana de'Bei Menasheh's statement to read, not 'Ein Eid mi'Pi Eid Kasher Ela *le'Edus Ishah* Bilevad' - but 'Ein Eid mi'Pi Eid Kasher Ela *le'Edus she'ha'Ishah Kesheirah Lah* Bilevad', and that includes Edus Bechor.

(c) When Rav Hoshaya from Neherda'a cited the Beraisa (in which Rebbi Elazar and Rebbi Shimon permitted the juice of olives and grapes - which were pressed before Shabbos - that came out on Shabbos, he is adding to our Mishnah a case where he is squeezing what was 'Me'ikara Ochel, ve'Sof Mashkeh', where there is reason to be more stringent than the case of honey from the honey-combs, which is Me'ikara Ochel, ve'Sof Ochel. In spite of that, Rebbi Elazar and Rebbi Shimon permit the juice which comes out.

(a) The Tarnegoles de'Bei Rebbi Aba - was a chicken that he used to boil, and then leave for many days to soak in hot water, where it would disintegrate.

(b) To counteract the strong after-effects of Rebbi Aba's chicken - they would give the person who ate it wine that was three years old.

(c) When Rav Yosef heard how Rebbi Yochanan spat when he recalled the Kutach *ha'Bavli* - he retorted that he might just as well spit at the disgusting spectacle of the Tarnegoles de'Rebbi Aba (which was a *Yerushalmi* invention).

(d) Rav Yosef also quoted Rav Gaza, a Babylonian, who testified that he once traveled to Eretz Yisrael, and when he prepared Kutach ha'Bavli, all the sick people came to ask for it.

8) If someone pours hot water (even from a K'li Sheni) on to an old salted herring, small salted fish or a thin-skinned fish called Kuli'as ha'Ispanin - he is Chayav for cooking.


(a) According to Rebbi Yochanan ...
1. ... the birds of Bavel were fatter than those of Eretz Yisrael - because they did not go into exile like those of Eretz Yisrael did.
2. ... the people of Bavel rejoiced on Yom-Tov more than those of Eretz Yisrael - because they were not included in the curse recorded in Hoshei'a regarding Eretz Yisrael: "ve'Hishbati Kol Mesosah, Chagah, Chodshah, ve'Shabbatah".
3. ... the Talmidei-Chachamim wore finer clothing than those of Eretz Yisrael - because that is the way people living in a foreign country present themselves - in their own country, by their good name, in a foreign one, by their clothes.
4. ... the gentiles were sweaty (see footnote), because, when the sweatiness of Yisrael left them at Har Sinai (through Kabalas ha'Torah), the gentiles were not there. Note: 'sweaty' probably refers to a spiritual sweat, and is connected to the known fact that when the snake enticed and lay with Chavah, the Yetzer ha'Ra entered inside her, and subsequently, all of mankind. Yisrael are able to overcome the Yetzer ha'Ra through Torah - as the Gemara says in Bava Basra, gentiles are not.
(b) Rebbi Yochanan interpreted the Pasuk "Emor la'Chochmah Achosi At"- to mean that, one should only present opinions in matters of learning if one is absolutely certain, but not if there is any reason to doubt that what one is saying is not absolutely correct.

(c) The fifty-two years that the animals, birds and fish of Eretz Yisrael were in exile - comprised the years in between the exile (from the destruction of the first Beis-Hamikdash) until Koresh the first of Persia gave permission for the Jews to return and begin the construction of the second Beis Hamikdash (though this permission was revoked almost immediately for another eighteen years) - until the time of Koresh the second.

(d) The Kuli'as ha'Ispanin did not return to Eretz Yisrael, together with the other animals - because it had no backbone, and was therefore unable to swim uphill, like the other fish had to do.

(a) Gentile leaders come each Yom-Tov to Tzipori and Teverya to plunder and to cause trouble - not as part of a deliberate plan to harm Klal Yisrael, but because of the decree "ve'Hishbati Kol Mesosah, Chagah, Chodshah, ve'Shabbatah" (as explained above - in 9a. 3).

(b) "ha'Ba'im Yashresh Ya'akov, Yatzitz u'Farach Yisrael" - refers to the Talmidei-Chachamim of Bavel, who developed blossoms and flowers for the Torah (presumably, this refers to the castruity of Talmud Bavli - the Shakla ve'Tarya which is not present in the Talmud Yerushalmi).

(c) Although the Gerim did not stand at Har Sinai, they are not sweaty, like the gentiles are, because even if *they* did not stand at Har Sinai, their *Mazal* did.

(d) According to Rebbi Aba bar Kahana, the sweatiness (which left Avraham in part, in the form of Yishmael, and Yitzchak, in the form of Eisav) was absent in Ya'akov Avinu, whose children were all righteous.

Next daf


For further information on
subscriptions, archives and sponsorships,
contact Kollel Iyun Hadaf,