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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Shabbos 141



(a) All forms of wood and wooden substances, including straw and stubble, were normally used as fire-wood, and are consequently Muktzah on Shabbos, until one designates and prepares them for a use which is permitted on Shabbos.

(b) One would however, be permitted to arrange the straw on the bed using other parts of the body (such as the shoulder), because this is included in Tiltul min ha'Tzad, which is permitted on Shabbos.

(c) It would be permitted to move the stubble even with one's hands - if it was either fit for animal fodder or if there was also a cushion or a sheet on the bed (this latter case is permitted because he has now visibly revealed his intention to use the stubble as a mattress, which is sufficient to take it out of the realm of Muktzah).

(d) One may open an amateur press on Shabbos, and remove the clothes, since this does not constitute a Melachah; whereas opening a professional press, which is pressed tightly shut, is forbidden, because it resembles Setirah. Closing the press is forbidden in both cases, because it is Uvdin de'Chol.

(a) Rav Nachman, who forbids pulling a detached radish out of the ground if the wide end is showing above the ground - is disproved from our Mishnah, which permits moving the stubble on the bed with one's body (so we see that Tiltul min ha'Tzad - indirectly, is permitted), so one could certainly pull the radish from the ground, even if it is the narrow end which is showing, and one will inevitably move earth in the process.

(b) Rav Yehudah permits grinding peppers with the back of a knife - but only one at a time.

(c) Rava argues that, seeing as one is making a Shinuy (by using the back of a knife, instead of a regular grinder), what difference does it make how many he grinds at a time?

(a) Rav Yehudah rules that someone who swims in a river on Shabbos - should take care to dry himself before leaving the water, because otherwise, he will come to carry (the water on his body) four Amos in a Karmelis.

(b) Although he moves the water in the river with his body, he is not actually carrying it, only causing it to move. This is known as Kocho (his force) and Chazal did not forbid Kocho in a Karmelis.

(a) The Gemara initially thought that rubbing one's muddy shoe against the wall, constitutes Binyan.

(b) Rava objects to this explanation - on the grounds that wiping mud on a wall is not considered building; if anything, he contends, it is wiping it on the ground that will be forbidden, because one may come to fill in the grooves in the ground.

(c) Mar Brei de'Ravina - forbids both of the above. According to him, someone with muddy shoes should wipe them on a loose beam.

(a) Rava forbids one to sit by the mouth of the Lechi of a Mavuy (or to occupy oneself there) - because, since he has no recognition that will remind him not to carry into the street, we are afraid that something of his may roll into the street, and he will go and fetch it.

(b) One may not arrange a barrel on the ground on Shabbos to sit on - in case he comes to fill in grooves, in order to make the ground flat.

(c) It is forbidden to stop up the mouth of a jug with cloths - in case one comes to wring them out on Shabbos.

(a) One may remove wet mud on Shabbos - either by removing it with one's nail (and certainly with the back of a knife) or by rubbing the two sections of garment together from the back.

(b) This does not constitute Libun, since no water is used.

(c) Rebbi Yanai restricts the Heter of scraping the wet mud from a shoe with the back of a knife - to a new shoe, but not to an old one. This is because one may come to scrape off some of the leather, which constitutes Memachek.

(d) The Beraisa quoted by the old man - prohibits scraping both an old shoe and a new one.




(a) It is forbidden to rub oil on one's foot whilst wearing a shoe - because some of the oil is bound to drip onto the shoe, and one will have transgressed the Melachah of Me'abed.

(b) One is permitted ...

  1. ... to roll on a leather mat after rubbing oil on one's body.
  2. ... to put on a shoe after rubbing oil on one's foot.
(c) Even this however, will be forbidden if there is sufficient oil on one's foot to tan the leather.

(d) It is forbidden to rub oil on one's shoe to *shine* it, in case one comes to rub in sufficient oil to *tan* it.

(a) It is forbidden for a small man to wear a larger man's shoes - because they are likely to fall off; but it is permitted to wear his undershirt, because it is *not*; neither is he likely to remove it in the street and carry it when people laugh at him - because an undershirt is not visible to other people, for them to laugh at.

(b) He may not, however, wear his shirt - because when people laugh at him, he will take it off and carry it in the street.

(c) A woman is forbidden to go out with ...

1. ... a torn shoe - for the same reason as a man is forbidden to go out with a larger man's jacket.
2. ...new shoes - which she has never worn (not even to try them on) - because, should they turn out to be the wrong size, she will feel self-conscious, and come to carry it in the street.
(d) Chalitzah should not be performed with a torn shoe, but is Kasher Bedieved, if it was.
(a) The author of the Beraisa (which permits the removal of a shoe from a shoe-form) is the Rabbanan (of Rebbi Eliezer), who consider a shoe-form a K'li; whereas the author of the Beraisa which forbids it, is Rebbi Eliezer, in whose opinion, a shoe-form is Muktzah.

(b) According to Abaye, who forbids moving a 'Davar she'Melachto le'Isur' le'Tzorech Mekomo - the Beraisa which permits taking the shoe from the shoe-form must be speaking when the shoe is only loosely placed on the shoe-form, so that it can be removed without handling the shoe-form.

(c) According to Rava (who permits a 'Davar she'Melachto le'Isur' le'Tzorech Mekomo), Rebbi Yehudah (who, in a Beraisa, restricts the Heter to remove the shoe to when it is loose - and can be removed without moving the shoe-form), is saying this according to Rebbi Eliezer (but according to the Rabbanan, one may remove the shoe, even if it is firmly entrenched on the shoe-horn.

**** Hadran Alach, 'Tolin'! ****

**** Perek Notel ****


(a) One is not Chayav for carrying a child, according to Rava, because he follows the opinion of Rebbi Nasan, who holds 'Chai Nosei es Atzmo'.

(b) A bed is Batel to the corpse which is being carried out on it, because it is the way to be Mevatel the bed to the corpse; whereas it is not the way to be Mevatel a purse round the child's neck.

(c) One is not Chayav for carrying out a corpse, because it is a 'Melachah she'Einah Tzerichah le'Gufa', and Rava holds like Rebbi Yehudah that one is Patur for performing a 'Melachah she'Einah Tzerichah le'Gufa'.

(a) Rava learns that the Tana exempts the father in our Mishnah (who is carrying the child, who is in turn, holding the stone), not because the father is not considered to be holding the stone - in fact, he is; nevertheless, Chazal permitted him to carry the child together with the stone, because our Mishnah speaks when the child is particularly close to his father, and has a deep longing for him. Consequently, we are afraid that, if we do not allow his father to carry him, he will become sick.

(b) When the child is holding instead of a stone, a coin - Chazal forbade carrying the child at all, since we are now afraid that, should this happen, the father, worried about losing the money, will pick up the coin and carry it home - a suspicion which over-rides even the health of his son.

(c) In a Beraisa, we have learnt that the Tana permits carrying a person who is *wearing* his clothes, his rings and his shoes, but not if he is holding these things in his hand. Why not? Because they may fall, and the person carrying him may come to pick them up - which proves the previous answer.

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