ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem
Previous dafShabbos 128
(a) Raban Shimon ben Gamliel ...
(b) The reason for the difference is because elephants were *not* common,
whereas ostriches *were*.
- ... also permitted moving broken pieces of glass on Shabbos - because ostriches eat them ...
- ... but not detached vine-branches - even though elephants eat them.
(c) If one needed to actually own ostriches for the pieces of glass to be
permitted, then how could Rebbi Nasan then ask Raban Shimon ben Gamliel
why, according to him, vine-branches were not permitted, since they were
fit for elephants? How many people owned elephants - for his Kashya to make
(a) Raban Shimon ben Gamliel, Rebbi Shimon, Rebbi Yishmael and Rebbi Akiva
- all hold 'Kol Yisrael B'nei Melachim Hem'. Note: whenever the Gemara
gives such a list of Tana'im, it is called 'Shitah' and is not Halachah.
(b) Rebbi Shimon says that all of Yisrael are permitted to use rose-oil,
since all Jews are potentially worthy of becoming princes, and everybody
agrees that princes are permitted to use it.
(c) According to the Chachamim, we sell the movables of a debtor to pay off
his debt, and, if he is wearing a very expensive suit (above his means), we
sell it, and use the proceeds to buy him a suit within his means, using the
remainder to help pay his debt. Rebbi Yishmael and Rebbi Akiva however,
maintain that every Jew is a potential prince; so, if he is wearing a very
expensive suit, we leave him with it.
(d) Raban Shimon ben Gamliel is more strict than the Rabbanan; according to
him, even a bundle of straw etc. that one designated is only permitted if
it can be carried with one hand; but if it can only be carried with two
hands, it is Muktzah - even if it *was* designated as animal-fodder,
because of the excessive bother.
(a) Savory, hyssop and pennyroyal plants (like the bundles of straw etc.,
in the previous question) can be used either as fire-wood or as
animal-fodder. They are only allowed to be moved if one specifically placed
them in one's store of animal-fodder before Shabbos.
(b) One is permitted to cut them into small pieces on Shabbos - using one's
hands, but not an implement.
(c) According to the Chachamim, one is only permitted to roll a few at a
time with the tips of one's fingers, not with an implement, and not even in
the palm of the hand.
(d) This Halachah also applies to mint, the rue-plant and all other kinds
(a) One may move raw, salted meat on Shabbos.
(b) Rav and Rav Huna hold like Rebbi Yehudah (concerning Muktzah) only as
regards eating, but as far as moving is concerned, they hold like Rebbi
(c) Unsalted meat is not fit to be eaten raw, but goose-meat, which is
tender, *is*. That is why Rav Chisda forbade the former, but permitted the
(d) The Beraisa forbids raw, unsalted fish on Shabbos, because it is not
yet fit for human consumption. Nor does one designate it for one's dogs
(since it is fit for humans); on the other hand, the Beraisa permits raw,
unsalted meat, since it is fit for wild (carnivorous) animals. The author
of this Beraisa is Rebbi Yehudah, who holds of Muktzah (according to Rebbi
Shimon, the unsalted fish will also be permitted).
(a) Bones are not Muktzah on Shabbos, because dogs eat them.
(b) According to Raban Shimon ben Gamliel, water that was left uncovered is
Muktzah. Why? Because even though cats can safely drink it, it is
forbidden to leave it lying around (for the cats to drink) in case a human
being finds it and drinks it.
(a) The Chidush of the Mishnah, which permits overturning a basket on
Shabbos for the chicks to hop on and off - is that a vessel may be moved to
serve something that is itself Muktzah. According to Rav Yitzchak, who
holds that one may not take a vessel to serve another vessel that is itself Muktzah, the Gemara already answered above (on 43a), that the Chidush of
the Mishnah is that one may pick up a Muktzah vessel if one needs its
(b) One may return a rebellious hen to its coop, but not by carrying it -
only by pushing it until it returns on its own volition.
(c) Chazal are more lenient with animals than with chickens in this regard,
inasmuch as Diduy (holding them by the neck and body and moving them along)
is permitted, whereas by a chicken that is forbidden. Why? Because it
counters by sticking its claws into the ground and refusing to budge; in
which case, one will actually be carrying it.
(d) Rebbi Yehudah explains that the Tana Kama permits Diduy only if her son
actually responds by moving his feet. She is not permitted to pull him
along, as that constitutes carrying.
(a) The Beraisa permits only feeding it where it is, but no more, when that
is possible. Rav permits placing cushions underneath the animal, when, for
some reason or other, it is not possible to feed it in its place.
(b) True, placing the cushions there constitutes 'Mevatel K'li me'Hechano'.
However, leaving the animal in the pool of water, is 'Tzar Ba'alei Chayim',
and Tzar Ba'alei Chayim is d'Oraysa - Consequently, it over-rides 'Mevatel
K'li me'Hechano', which is only de'Rabbanan.
(a) The Diduy of an animal is permitted only in the courtyard, but
forbidden in the street, because, should the animal rise from the ground in
the process of the Diduy, one will be Chayav for carrying (since, according
to the Rabbanan of Rebbi Nasan, we do not apply 'ha'Chai Nosei es Atzmo' to
animals). The Diduy of a child, however, is permitted even in the street,
because the Rabbanan agree with Rebbi Nasan that, by a person, we say
'ha'Chai Nosei es Atzmo'. Consequently, even if the child refuses to walk,
and is inadvertently pulled along, the mother will only have transgressed
an Isur de'Rabbanan, but not a d'Oraysa.
(b) The Beraisa which permits even the *Diduy* of birds on Shabbos in a
courtyard, is speaking about the majority of birds; whereas the Beraisa
which permits only pushing them, but not Diduy - is speaking about
(c) When Shechting a hen, one should either pick it up from the ground, or
push it down so that it bends its legs. Otherwise, it is like to press its
claws into the ground, and move during the Shechitah, causing the Shochet
to make Ikur Simanim (pulling out the Simanim instead of cutting them).
(a) One may assist a woman in childbirth on Yom-Tov in whichever way
necessary; whereas by an animal only a limited assistance is permitted.
(b) In addition, assisting a woman in childbirth is permitted even on
Shabbos, whereas by an animal, it is only permitted on Yom-Tov.
(c) According to Rebbi Yossi, even severing the umbilical cord is
(d) Besides holding the baby animal when it emerges (according to Rav
Yehudah), one may also clear its nasal passage by blowing into it, and
place its mothers teat into its mouth for it to drink.
(a) According to Rav Nachman, one is even permitted to press the animal's
stomach behind the womb, to help the baby to emerge.
(b) Merachamin al Behemah Tehorah be'Yom-Tov means: 1. to place a grain of
salt in the mother's womb, to remind it of its birth-pangs, so that it
should take pity on its baby and look after it; 2. to sprinkle some water
from the placenta on to the baby, because the smell too, will help evoke
its mother's mercy.
(c) Raban Shion ben Gamliel restricts 'Merachmin' to a Behemah Tehorah -
because a Behemah Temei'ah does not generally reject its young, but, once
it does, then it will not take it back, and no human strategy will help.
(a) The Beraisa permits lighting a fire for a woman who has given birth -
even if she is blind, in which case the light will not benefit her
directly. Nevertheless, the Tana permits it, because the mother will feel
better if she knows that other people can (literally) see to her needs, and
the jeopardy to her life will be minimised.
(b) One brings the mother oil in one's hands, but not in a jar (in order to
make as much Shinuy as possible - since this does not cause any delay). If
more oil is needed, one may bring it in one's hair (from which one then
squeezes it out). Should that not suffice, one brings her the oil in a
(c) Rabah and Rav Yosef hold that 'Ein Sechitah be'Se'ar' (mi'd'Oraysa -
only mi'de'Rabbanan). Therefore, it is preferable to bring it in the hair
than to carry it in the street.
(d) Rav Ashi answers that what the Beraisa means is, not that one carries
the oil directly in one's hair, but that one carries the bottle of oil in
one's hair 'k'le'Achar Yad'.