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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Shabbos 124



(a) she'Lo le'Tzorech means ...
1. ... according to Rabah (or Abaye) 'Davar she'Melachto le'Heter, le'Tzorech Mekomo'.
2. ... according to Rava, 'Davar she'Melachto le'Heter, me'Chamah le'Tzel'.
(b) According to Rebbi Nechemyah ...
1. ... le'Tzorech Gufo means to use exclusively for its original function.
2. ... le'Tzorech Mekomo is like Tzorech Gufo, since a vessel is initially intended to be moved when one needs its place.
(a) According to Rabah, Rebbi Nechemyah permits the removal of dirty dishes from the table, because they have the Din of a Graf shel Re'i.

(b) The Mishnah in Beitzah forbids using a block of wood on Yom-Tov, to support a pot or a door, because Chazal decreed Yom-Tov because of Shabbos.

(c) The block of wood is not permitted on Shabbos because only a *K'li* she'Melachto le'Isur is permitted le'Tzorech Gufo u'Mekomo, and a block of wood however, is not a K'li.

(a) It may well be that Rebbi Eliezer forbids retrieving the second animal from the pit, not because he decrees Shabbos because of Yom-Tov, but because one can ensure its survival by feeding it where it is. And similarly, when Rebbi Yehoshua permits retrieving it, it is not because he does not in principle, decree Yom-tov because of Shabbos, but because it is possible to be Ma'arim, as we learnt above; otherwise, he would also agree that one decrees Yom-Tov because of Shabbos.

(b) Beis Shamai forbid carrying anything but food (which the Torah specifically permits) on Yom-Tov. The Rabbanan did not want to permit other things, any more than on Shabbos, whereas according to Beis Hillel, one may carry anything, in spite of the fact that that is Asur on Shabbos.

(c) If Beis Shamai are stringent with regard to *carrying*, then they will also be stringent with regard to Tiltul *Muktzah*, since Tiltul is usually performed in order to carry (according to the text in our Gemara, this should read - 'was the decree of Tiltul not issued because of carrying' (in order that one should not come to carry)?




(a) Rav said that one may not carry a spade (which is a 'Davar she'Malachto le'Isur') in order to protect it from thieves (which is similar to 'me'Chamah le'Tzel') - but 'le'Tzorech Gufo u'Mekomo' one may (like Rava).

(b) In the first answer, the Gemara amends Rabah's statement. What he really said was 'Remove the trap from before Rav Kahana' to enable him to sit down ('le'Tzorech Mekomo').

(c) 'I Nami, Hasam me'Chamah le'Tzel Havah' - means that the trap was in a bad place, where it was prone to become spoilt by the sun, and if Rav had not announced that he was bringing it in for Rav Kahana to sit on, people would have thought that he was permitting 'me'Chamah le'Tzel'.

(d) Rava told Rav Mari bar Rachel that anyone other than himself was permitted to move his furs, when, in answer to Rava's ruling permitting him to move them, he replied firstly that he had other furs (and did not need those), and then that he even had enough spare ones for his guests.

(a) A broom was considered a 'Davar she'Melachto le'Isur' - because in those days, most floors consisted of earth, and the likelihood existed that, in the process of sweeping, one may come to fill in grooves in the ground, to straighten the floor (which constitutes Binyan).
Note: Nowadays, since at least most of the floors in town are covered with tiles etc., sweeping is permitted and brooms are not Muktzah.

(b) A table brush is not Muktzah.

(c) Rav Elazar agrees with Rav, and forbids moving a broom out of the sun on Shabbos, too.

(a) Rebbi Yehudah requires a broken vessel to be usable for the same function as it was before it broke; for example ...


1. ... a broken earthenware dish, to pour a hot stew into it;
2. ... a glass dish (which is those days was not durable), to contain oil.
(a) The Gemara initially thought that, if the vessels broke on Shabbos, they are permitted because they were Kelim when Shabbos entered.

(b) Had the (wooden) vessels (whose broken pieces the Mishnah in Beitzah forbade to use as firewood) - broken *before* Yom-Tov, why on earth would they be forbidden (to use as fire-wood)? Isn't that what wood was normally designated for in those days? Consequently, they must have broken *on* Yom-Tov, and they are forbidden, not because of Muktzah, but because of Nolad.

(c) The Gemara therefore explains Shmuel like this: Rebbi Yehudah and the Rabbanan argue when the vessels broke *on* Shabbos, where Rebbi Yehudah holds, unless they can still be used for their original function, they are forbidden, because of Nolad; whereas the Rabbanan do not hold of Nolad, in which case, the vessels are permitted as long as they are still usable, and therefore carry the title of 'Kelim'.

(a) The three Beraisos are simply learnt by different authors: the author of 'Masikin be'Kelim, ve'Ein Masikin be'Shivrei Kelim' - is Rebbi Yehudah, who holds both of Muktzah (which is not applicable to ordinary Kelim on Yom-Tov) and of Nolad - which *is*; the author of 'Ke'shem she'Masikin be'Kelim, Kach Masikin be'Shivrei Kelim' - is Rebbi Shimon, who does not hold of Muktzah either; whereas the author of 'Ein Masikin Lo be'Kelim ve'Lo be'Shivrei Kelim' - is Rebbi Nechemyah, who only permits vessels to be used for the original function for which they were intended.
(a) A piece of clay in a courtyard is not Muktzah, because one can cover vessels with it.

(b) Rav Nachman argues that people tend to sit and relax in a Karmelis, in which case, the piece of clay is fit to cover spittle.

(c) Rav Nachman concedes however, that the piece of clay is Muktzah in the street (since neither of the above regulat uses is applicable there), .

(d) Rava, on the other hand, maintains that, if a piece of clay is fit for use in a courtyard - and is therefore called a Kli, then it is a Kli in the street, too.

Rava said to the Rabbanan who shouted at his servant for picking up a piece of clay in the street - 'Not satisfied with being ignorant of the Halachah, you also want to teach others (your mistakes)!'

(a) The pieces of a broken barrel and its lid do not become Muktzah - because they are still fit to be used as lids for other barrels or vessels.

(b) 'Lo Yispos Mimenu Shever Lechasos Bah es ha'K'li' etc. means that is not permitted to shape the broken pieces - to cut off sharp edges etc., because this is considered Tikun Manah.

(c) If one threw the lid into the trash-pan ...

1. ... *on* Shabbos, he may retrieve it (since it was a Kli when Shabbos entered), but not ...
2. ... if he discarded it *before* Shabbos (since, when Shabbos entered, its status of K'li had already been nullified).
Note: Throwing a shirt into the trash-pan before Shabbos would not negate its status, since most people consider a shirt a K'li, unlike an independent lid, which depends on each individual's intentions.
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