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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Shabbos 118



(a) The Kupah is the weekly distribution of money (which every town was obligated to institute), to provide the needs of the poor. The Kupah was meant for the more refined poor, who did not want to accept food from the Tamchuy. The Tamchuy was the daily soup kitchen, which provided for those poor who did not even have sufficient food (or money) for two meals.

(b) A poor man who had fourteen meals (or money to buy them) could not take from the Kupah.

(c) The Beraisa should have written fifteen meals, according to the Rabbanan - because on Shabbos, in addition to the two regular meals that one eats each day (one in the morning and one in the evening - the second meal on Shabbos would normally take the form of Melave Malka), he would also require Se'udas Shelishis.

(d) The Gemara answers that Melave Malka is only for those who can afford it, and that the community is not obligated to provide the poor with Melave Malka. Consequently, the poor man is expected to eat his second meal earlier than usual - in the form of Se'udas Shelishis, and to forego Melave Malka.

(a) The Gemara attempts to establish the Beraisa even like Rebbi Chidka - by suggesting that he his forego his Friday morning meal, leaving it for the extra meal on Shabbos.

(b) The Gemara rejects that contention on the grounds that Rebbi Chidka would hardly force the poor man to fast the whole of Friday.

(c) Rebbi Akiva says that as far as someone who is very poor is concerned, 'Asei Shabatcha Chol, ve'Al Titztarech la'Beriy'os'. A man who can afford it requires fifteen meals a week, according to the Rabbanan, and sixteen, according to Rebbi Chidka. But a poor man, receives the minimum of fourteen - two each day, even on Shabbos.

(a) A poor man who remains in town over Shabbos, receives three meals, one for Friday night, and two for Shabbos daytime.

(b) The author of the Mishnah could well be Rebbi Chidka - and it speaks when he arrived with one meal. He eats the meal that he brought with him on Friday night, and the three which he receives, during the day.

(c) When he leaves, he will not leave empty-handed, because the Gaba'ei Tzedakah will give him one meal to take away with him.

(d) Parnasas Linah is a bed (presumably with a blanket) and a cushion.

(a) Washing dishes - is permitted provided one needs them: i.e. after the Friday night meal, one may wash them for Shabbos morning, and after the Shabbos morning meal, for Se'udas Shelishis. After Se'udas Shelishis, the washing of dishes is prohibited.

(b) Washing drinking cups, on the other hand, is permitted all day, The difference lies in the fact that, whereas for eating, there are fixed meal-times, there is no fixture for drinking - i.e. one tends to drink at any time (until dusk, when, provided one has already Bensched after Se'udas Shelishis, drinking, no less than eating, is forbidden, until after Havdalah).

(c) Someone who fulfills the Mitzvah of three meals on Shabbos, is spared from - the pangs of Moshi'ach (the hard time that Talmidei-Chachamim will go through before Moshi'ach comes), the judgment of Gehinom and the battles of Gog and Magog.




(a) We learn from ...
1. ... "Az Tis'anag Al Hashem ... ve'Ha'achalticha Nachalas Ya'akov Avicha" - that someone who enjoys Shabbos (in the manner which will be prescribed shortly) will receive an unlimited inheritance (his reward is endless). we derive this from the fact that the Navi mentions 'Ya'akov Avicha', and not Avraham or Yitzchak. How? Because Hashem said to Avraham: "Kum His'halech ba'Aretz, le'Orkah u'le'Rochbah" (a limited area); He said to Yitzchak: "Ki Lecha u'le'Zar'acha Eten es Kol ha'Araztzos ha'El" (a limited area); but to Ya'akov, he promised "u'Faratzta Yamah va'Kedmah, ve'Tzafonah va'Negbah" - an unlimited area.
2. ... the Gezeirah Shavah of "ve'Ha'achalticha al *Bamasei* Aretz" and "ve'Atah al *Bamoseimo* Sidroch" - that someone who enjoys Shabbos will be spared from being subservient to the nations.
(b) Someone who enjoys Shabbos is also due to have all the requests of his heart fulfilled.

(c) Others say that whatever one eats li'Chevod Shabbos is considered Oneg Shabbos - even if it is only little fish fried in flour with the oil of their innards - if that is all he can afford. It appears from Rashi that, even according to the first opinion, whatever is Chashuv at that time, is considered Oneg Shabbos.

(a) We learn from "Ashrei Enosh Ya'aseh Zos ... Shomer Shabbos *me'Chalelo*" (which we Darshen to read 'Machul Lo') - that someone who who observes Shabbos properly is forgiven for all his sins, even if he serves idols like the generation of Enosh (Adam's grandson, in whose days the concept of idolatry was initiated) did. This means that he serves idols, not as alternative deities, but as servants of Hashem, whilst still believing fully in Hashem like the generation of Enosh did. Otherwise, what meaning will his Shabbos observance have?

(b) Had Yisrael not broken the first Shabbos after Marah (by leaving the Techum Shabbos to collect Manna), they would have been eternally invincible. Their immediate punishment was an attack by Amalek. (In fact, the Parshah of their grumbling - when they had no water - interrupts between the two Parshiyos - indeed, Chazal ascribe Amalek's attack to their doubting whether, or not, Hashem was in their midst (when they asked "ha'Yesh hashem Bekirbeinu Im Ayin?" [the numerical value of Amalek = Safek]. The explanation must be that Shabbos is the basis of Emunah, and that any weakness in Emunah is the direct result of Chilul Shabbos. In other words,Amalek attacked because they had doubts in Emunah, and these doubts were a direct result of their Chilul Shabbos.)

(c) We learn from "Koh Amar Hashem la'Sarisim Asher Yishmeru es Shabsosai (plural)... va'Havi'osim el Har Kodshi" - that if only Yisrael would keep two Shabbasos properly, they would be redeemed immediately.

(a) No! Reciting Hallel every day is prohibited. It is even considered an insult to Hashem, since Hallel was instituted to say on special occasions, not every day.

(b) What Rebbi Yossi meant when he wished his lot to be with those who completed Hallel every day - was with those who say Pesukei de'Zimra every day (according to Rashi, he referred to "Hallelu es Hashem" and "Hallelu Keil be'Kodsho" - the two most important chapters in Pesukei de'Zimra - according to the Rosh,it is *all* the Hallelu-Kah's).

(c) Stomach ailments are the mark of Tzadikim, most of whom die from that, since it is very painful and serves as an atonement for one's sins. That is why Rebbi Yossi wished his lot to be among those Tzadikim.

(d) He also wished to die whilst occupied with a Mitzvah (though it is not clear why the merit of the Mitzvah should not shield over him - as the Pasuk writes in Mishlei - "Shomer Mitzvah Lo Yeda Davar Ra").

(a) What Rebbi Yossi meant by saying that he wished he was ...
1. ... from those who brought in Shabbos in Teverya, and who brought Shabbos out in Tzipori - is this: Teverya is at the foot of the mountain, Tzipori, one Mil away, at the top. Consequently, in Teverya, they would bring Shabbos *in* early (due to the early setting of the sun), in Tzipori, they would bring Shabbos *out* late (because it set later there). What Rebbi Yossi (who actually lived in Tzipori) was saying, was what a commendable thing it is to bring in Shabbos early in Teverya, and bring it out late in Tzipori; in other words, to prolong the Shabbos.
2. ... from the Moshivei Beis-ha'Medrash, and not from the Ma'amidei Beis-ha'Medrash - is that it is a great merit to call people to come and learn Torah when the time for their studies arrives (like the Rebbes used to do, when they called their young Talmidim to come and learn), but not to remind them to stop learning and go and eat.
3. ... from the Gaba'ei Tzedakah, and not from the Mechalkei Tzedakah - is that collecting Tzedakah funds (which requires only *two* people), is a great Mitzvah which is relatively easy to do since it does not deprive anyone of their rights. But when it came to distributing the Tzedakah (which requires *three* Gaba'im - precisely because there is a problem) one is always prone to overestimate the needs of one poor man, and give him more than his needs - at the expense of other needy recipients.
(b) Rebbi Yossi also stated that he wished he was among those who were suspected of doing things of which they were innocent (presumably because this a relatively painless source of atonement for one's sins).
(a) Rebbi Yossi stated that he had performed five Be'ilos, and had conceived five sons - all of whom would later become 'cedars' (great men).

(b) However, this cannot possibly be correct, since every Jewish man is Chayav to fulfill the Mitzvah of Onah (a Talmid-Chacham,every Friday night). What he therefore really said was that only five times did he perform two consecutive Be'ilos, from which his five exceptional sons were conceived.

(c) Vardimus was not a sixth son, but alias Menachem (who was already mentioned). He was called by that name, because his face was (handsome) like a rose.

(d) Rebbi Yossi used to call ...

  1. ... his wife - his house;
  2. ... his ox - his field.
This was to demonstrate that everything in this world was created with a specific purpose, and should be viewed in that light (rather than purely with the emotions, as so many people tend to do).
(a) Rebbi was called Rabeinu ha'Kadosh, not merely because he did not look at his Milah, but because he never touched his body below the belt.

(b) When Rebbi Yossi got undressed, he was careful to remove his undershirt without turning it inside out. In the process, he took care to cover himself first with his sheet because of Tzeni'us.

(c) Rebbi Yossi was so respectful of his peers, that in spite of the fact that he was not a Kohen, he would have gone to Duchen with the Kohanim (without reciting a Berachah - see Tosfos DH 'Ilu'), had they only asked him. When Rebbi Yossi said ...

1. ... that he had never said something and turned back - he meant that he never needed to deny having said anything about anybody, either stressing his Midas ha'Emes, or how much care he took never to say anything derogatory about anyone that he would later need to deny (see Rashi in Erchin end of 15b); or that because anything that one be willing to say into the person's face is not subject to Lashon ha'Ra (which is how Rashi learns here, too).
2. ... that he kept the Mitzvah of Tefilin and of Tzitzis - he meant that he never walked four Amos without them.
(a) Rabah was most particular about the Mitzvah of Tzitzis - so much so, his son Rav Yosef told Rav Yosef, that, on one occasion, when his Tzitzis tore - while he was climbing a ladder - he refused to move until he had fixed them.

(b) Whenever a Talmid-Chacham learning in his Yeshivah would complete a Masechta, Abaye (who was a Rosh Yeshivah) would arrange a Se'udah for any Talmid who learnt in his Yeshivah.

(c) Rava would not go to sleep before he had tried to find merits for the Talmidei-Chachamim who had asked him to judge their cases.

(d) Mar bar Rav Ashi disqualified himself from judging Talmidei-Chachamim, because he loved them as much as he loved himself - and one is not permitted to act as a judge over one's own flesh and blood.

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