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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Shabbos 108



(a) We would have thought that the skin of a Kasher bird is not Kasher for writing Tefilin - because it is perforated, and Klaf with holes in it is Pasul.

(b) It is in fact, permitted - because the holes are so small, that the ink passes over it, without leaving a hole in the writing.

(c) We learn from "ve'Shisa Oso bi'Chenafav" - that one brings the Olas ha'Of on the Mizbei'ach together with its skin.

(d) The answer to those who ask: if the bird's skin *is* considered skin, would the Torah permit it on the Mizbei'ach? - the answer is: Yes indeed, it *is* skin, yet the Torah permits it to be brought on the Mizbei'ach. And as for those who ask that, if it is *not* considered skin, why would the Torah find it necessary to include it? - the answer is that in spite of the fact that it is not skin, we would have thought that it is not Kavod to bring a perforated skin on the Mizbei'ach (it is not clear why).

(a) We learn from the Mishnah 'Atzmos ha'Dag ve'Oro, Matzilin be'Ohel ha'Mes' - that a Tahor fish has skin.

(b) The reason for this Halachah is because no sea-creature is Mekabel Tum'ah, and whatever is not Mekabel Tum'ah, also shields from Tum'ah.

(c) The question is whether the inherent filth that is present in the skin of a fish, dissipates. If it does, then one may write Tefilin on the skin of a fish; if not, then one may not. And that is what Eliyahu will reveal when he comes.

(d) Eliyahu cannot simply reveal the Halachah to us - because of the principle 'Lo ba'Shamayim Hi': Halachos must be worked out using the means by which Torah she'be'Al Peh is governed, and not by any form of Divine revelation.

(a) Shmuel understood that the river was sending up its waves to cover the body of a great man who was coming from Bavel - or for him to clean himself; the water was black, to reflect the pain of that man (Rav) who was suffering from stomach pains.

(b) When Shmuel told Karna 'Zil Tehi Bei be'Kankanei', he meant that he should go and test him to see whether he was indeed a great Talmid-Chacham.

(c) Rav gave the source for the obligation to write Tefilin on the skin of a Kasher animal from the Pasuk in Sh'mos "Lema'an Tihye Toras Hashem be'Ficha".

(d) Rav answered with the Pasuk "va'Yir'u Mo'av Mineged es ha'Mayim ka'Dam". to Karna's question, from where we know that blood is red - regarding the Din of Dam Nidus (which is not Tamei if it is any other color).

(a) Rav derives that the Mitzvah of Milah is performed on the Ever ha'Milah - from a Gezeirah Shavah "Orlaso" (Lech-Lecha) "Orlaso" (Kedoshim) - from the Orlah of trees, that the Milah should be performed on the limb which produces fruit (children).

(b) We prefer to learn the Gezeirah Shavah "Orla*so*" from "Orla*so*" (since both words are independent, than from "Or*las* Levavchem" or "Or*las* Oznam" (which is construct form, and therefore not similar to 'Orlaso').

(c) Rebbi Nasan derives this from the Pasuk in Lech-Lecha "ve'Arel Zachar Asher Lo Yimol es Besar Orlaso" - which clearly indicates the part of the body which distinguishes between the body of a man and a woman.

(d) Rav was angry that they were testing him, and he wished Karna (which means a horn) that a piece of flesh (called a Karna) should grow from his eye.

(e) Shmuel (who was a great doctor) in an attempt to cure Rav, took him to his house, fed him barley-bread and small fish fried in flour, and gave him beer to drink (to give him diarrhea); following which, he did not show him the bathroom (to make the manure churn).

(a) One may write Tefilin on the skin of ...
  1. ... a Kasher Chayah.
  2. ... an animal which is Tereifah.
(b) 've'Nikrachos be'Sa'aran, ve'Nitfaros be'Gidan' - means that the Parshiyos of the Tefilin must be wrapped and tied with hair made from a Kasher animal, and that the Batim must be sewn with the same. The source for this - is 'Halachah le'Moshe mi'Sinai'.

(c) We learn from the Pasuk "Lema'an Tihye Toras Hashem be'Ficha" - that Tefilin may not be written on the skin of non-Kasher species of animals.

(d) Neveilos and Tereifos, on the other hand, which are Kasher species of animals, are even preferred to animals that have been Shechted. Why? Because their lives were terminated by Hashem Himself, and not by human beings. It is similar to someone who is killed by the king, which is a greater honor than one who is killed by the hangman (like we say in the Pasuk "Vayomer David el Gad" - the Pasuk before Tachanun).




(a) 'Hilmi' is brine made in large quantities, Mei Melach is a small quantity of salt-water.

(b) Hilmi is used for pickling vegetables, which is forbidden because of Me'abed. (mi'de'Rabbanan, since min ha'Torah, 'Ein Ibud be'Ochlin')

(c) Rebbi Yossi forbids both Hilmi and Mei Melach. What is the difference between a large quantity and a small one, he argues? If a large quantity is forbidden, then so is a small one. He does concede however, that Mei Melach is permitted if one first adds oil, either into the water or into the salt.

(d) 'Mei Melach Azin' - is salt-water in which an egg will float - two thirds salt, and one third water. It is used to pickle fish.

(a) Abaye agrees with Rav Yehudah bar Chaviva, who forbids salting a radish, but, unlike him, he permits salting an egg.

(b) Rav Nachman used to salt radishes - because he held that the salt actually spoils the radishes, by neutralizing their naturally sharp flavor.

(c) Then, when he heard from Ula that in Eretz Yisrael, they salt them in piles, he changed his mind. From then on, he would only salt them one by one, as he ate them.

(d) An Esrog, a radish and an egg - would all remain in the stomach, were it not for their outer peel, or, in the case of the egg, its membrane.

(a) Nobody has ever drowned in the Yam-ha'Melach.

(b) Beams *never* sink in any river or sea; but people *do* in all seas and rivers - but for the Yam ha'Melach, which is why Rav Dimi mentioned only people.

(c) Taking cures is permitted on Shabbos, as long as it is not clear that one is indeed doing so. Someone who opens and closes his eyes is obviously not just cooling down, but is taking a cure.. Consequently, it is forbidden.

(a) One may place wine above the eye, since this is sometimes done as an eye-wash, and *not* necessarily for a cure, but not Rok Tapal (fresh early-morning spittle, which accumulates before one has eaten anything) which *is*, since it is disgusting to use it as an eye-wash.

(b) Shmuel said one of these two Dinim in the name of his father, the other in the name of Levi; we do not know which is which.

(a) Shmuel permitted a salve that was soaked on Erev Shabbos to be applied on Shabbos - because he needed to soak it before Shabbos is itself a sufficient reminder not to grind the ingredients of the cure - which is the reason for the application of all cures on Shabbos.

(b) No! He did not go so far as to permit opening and closing one's eyes when applying it.

(c) 'I will send you Shmuel's eye-salves', Mar Ukva told Rebbi Yanai, 'so that you should not accuse me of being miserly. You should know, however, that Shmuel himself said that a drop of cold water in the eye each morning and washing one's hands and feet are the best salves.

(a) Placing one's hand - before washing 'Negel-vaser' - in one's ...
  1. ... eye - causes blindness.
  2. ... ear - causes deafness.
  3. ... mouth or nose - causes a bad smell.
(b) One avoids all these problems - by washing each hand three times consecutively.

(c) 'Yad le'Amah' and 'Yad le'Pi ha'Taba'as' are different than the others, inasmuch as they are harmful even after has washed one's hands in the morning. 'Yad le'Amah Tikatzetz', because touching the Amah causes an emission. And 'Yad le'Fi ha'Taba'as' Tikatetz', because constant touching of the rectum causes piles.

(d) Eye-paint serves as an antidote for the spirit that strikes and blinds someone who touched the eye without washing his hands; it also stops excessive tears and causes the growth of hair on the eye-lids.

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