ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem
Previous dafShabbos 104
(a) The children explained 'Alef-Beis, Gimel Daled' - to mean 'Aluf Binah,
Gemol Dalim' (Torah and Chesed).
1. The leg of the 'Gimel' stretches towards the 'Daled' - because it is the
way of someone who performs Chesed to run after the poor man.
2. The leg of the 'Daled' stretches towards the 'Gimel' - because the poor
man is expected to avail himself to the rich man, to spare him the need to
run after him.
3. The face of the Daled turns away from the 'Gimel' - to hint to the rich
man that he should give the poor man discreetly, in a manner that either
prevents the poor man from knowing who gave him the gift, or the rich man
from knowing to whom he is giving - and best of all, from either knows who
the other one is.
1. Where there is Torah and Chesed, there is the Shechinah; the 'Hey' and
the 'Vav' represent Hashem's Name.
2. Hashem will feed you (Zan Oscha), be gracious towards you (Chan Oscha),
be good to you (meTiv Lecha), will give you an inheritance (Yerushah),
place a crown on your head (Keser) - for the World to Come (le'oLam ha'Ba).
1. 'Mem' Pesuchah 'Mem' Setumah symbolizes the fact that some parts of
Torah must be taught to everyone 'Ma'amar Pasu'ach'), there are other parts
which must remain hidden from the public ('Ma'amar Sasum') - such as
Ma'aseh ha'Merkavah and Kabalah (which should not be taught to those who
are not on the level to study them).
2. 'Nun' Kefufah 'Nun' Peshutah - means 'Ne'eman Kafuf': a loyal servant of
Hashem should be humble, and, in the end (in the World to Come) he will be
upright ('Ne'eman Pashut').
3. the 'Samech' and the 'Ayin' (besides S'moch Aniyim) - stand for 'Simanim
Asei': make signs to help remember the Torah that you learn (see Eiruvin
1. ... 'Peh' Pasu'ach, 'Peh' Sasum - An open mouth and a closed one: when
he is the greatest person in the town, then he should open his mouth and
teach Torah and issue rulings, but when there is someone greater than him,
he should show a low profile, and refrain from issuing rulings.
(b) We learn from here that the Torah was given with extreme humility.
2. ... 'Tzadei' Kafuf, 'Tzadei' Pashut - If a Tzadik bends himself in this
world, he will be upright in the World to Come (like we explained by
'Ne'eman' Kafuf, 'Ne'eman' Pashut). Even if one has alraedy bent oneself
before Hashem, one should bend oneself still more ('Me'od Me'od Hevei
Sh'fal Ru'ach' - Pirkei Avos).
(c) The 'Kuf' stands for Kadosh (Hashem), and the 'Reish' for Rasha. The
face of the 'Reish' turns away from the 'Kuf', because Hashem does not want
to look at the Rasha. Nevertheless, the crown of the Kuf leans towards the
Reish - as if Hashem is saying to the Rasha 'Do Teshuvah, and I will tie
you a crown like Mine'.
(a) The leg of the Kuf not reaching its head, is a message to the Rasha
that, if he wants to do Teshuvah, he can come back - via the space between
the leg and the head.
(b) Resh Lakish Darshened from the Pasuk "Im le'Letzim Hu Yalitz, ve'Im
la'Anavim Yiten Chen" that Hashem allows those who want to sin to go ahead
and do so, but if someone wishes to follow the right path, he receives
Divine assistance to come back. Someone who has sinned, will have extreme
difficulty in returning via the same path as he dropped out (through the
open section on the right-hand side of the Kuf) . So Hashem assists him by
creating a new opening via which he is able to return and begin afresh.
(c) The letters of Sheker are consecutive, whereas those of Emes are spaced
far apart - because Sheker is common, while Emes is rare (you have to
travel far to find it).
(d) All the letters of Sheker stand on one leg (on a narrow base) - because
Sheker will not last; whereas those of Emes stand either on two legs or on
a wide base - as a sign that it will last.
1. AT BaSH - is the 'Gematri'ah' of 'Alef'='Tav', 'Beis'='Shin'
(b) Hashem is telling ...
2. ACHaS BeTA GIF - is the 'Gematri'ah' of 'Alef'='Ches'= 'Samech',
'Beis'='Tes'='Ayin', 'Gimel'='Yud'='Peh', etc.
3. EL, BaM, GaN DaS - is the 'Gematri'ah' of 'Alef'='Lamed', 'Beis'='Mem',
1. ... the Resha'im that if they abhored Hashem, and did not desire him,
why should they expext Hashem to want them, or for His Name to rest on
them? And that if they contaminate their bodies and close Hashem's doors
(the Batei Keneses and Medrash), why should Hashem have mercy on them and
not cut them down.
(c) Hashem has pity on Yisrael, and does not send them to Gehinom - because
they do not commit adultery, and because they are innocent and righteous.
Therefore, He will lead them to Gan Eden.
2. ... the Tzadikim that if they is ashamed to sin, Hashem will guard their
Souls underneath His throne in the heaven; a partition will separate them
from Hashem's anger, and they will have no need to be afraid of the Satan.
(d) Hashem answers Gehinom (when it lays claim to all of mankind) - that
Yisrael are the children of Yitzchak (see above 89b) and are therefore not
worthy of Gehinom. He (the Angel in charge of Gehinom), on the other hand,
has no need to fear starvation however, since there are many groups of
gentiles to give him - for him to consume in his eternal fire.
(a) Regarding the Melachah of Kosev - one is Chayav whether he writes with
ink, sap, paint, dye or even glue or Kankantum (vitreol).
(b) One is Chayav for writing ...
1. ... two letters on two walls of a house, or on two pages of a ledger,
provided they are written in such a way that they can be read together i.e.
where the two corners of the house meet, or on the inside edges of the two
pages of the ledger.
2. ... on one's skin.
(a) One is Patur for writing with liquids, fruit-juices or Avak Derachim on
Shabbos - because the writing does not tend to last.
7) Someone who writes ...
(b) 'Avak Derachim' means either that he wrote *with* dust, or that he
wrote *in* dust.
(c) If someone writes ...
1. ... with the pen held in the back of his hand, his toes, his mouth or
with the pen held under his arm-pit - he is not Chayav, because one is not
Chayav for performing a Melachah k'Leachar Yad.
2. ... beside a written letter or over a written script - he is Patur,
because he has not written two new letters.
3. ... one letter on the ground and one on the ceiling - he is Patur,
because they canot be read together.
4. ... one letter which is an acronym, such as a 'Kuf' for Kashya - he is
Patur, according to the Chachamim, because he has not written two letters;
according to Rebbi Yehoshua ben Beseira however, he is Chayav.
1. ... with Mei Tarya (a certain type of plant, or rain-water) or with
gall-nut - is Chayav.
2. ... with dust, soot or charcoal - is Patur. The former lasts, the latter
does not (It is unclear how script written with rain-water, lasts).
(a) Ben Satda was an idiot, and one cannot use what idiots do as a guage
for normal people. Normal people, argue the Chachamim, do not write by
cutting into their skin.
(b) Rebbi Eliezer holds that someone who weaves even *one* thread beside
threads that have already been woven, is Chayav. By the same token, someone
who writes one letter beside letters that have already been written, is
Chayav; so the author of our Mishnah, which writes that he is Patur (in the
latter case), cannot be Rebbi Eliezer.
(c) No, it does not follow that the author of the Beraisa (which writes
'Kasav Os Achas ve'Hishlimah le'Sefer, O Arag Chut Echad ve'Hishlimah
le'Beged, Chayav) must be Rebbi Eliezer - because there, even the Rabbanan
will agree that he is Chayav - because of Makeh ba'Patish.
(a) If someone omitted the Daled in Yehudah, leaving the Name of Hashem;
should he now wish to use the written letters as a Shem, Rebbi Yehudah
maintains that he must write over the letters with ink. Consequently, the
author of our Mishnah, which does not consider this to be writing (with
regard to Shabbos), cannot be Rebbi Yehudah.
(b) If someone writes one letter in Teverya, and one in Tzipori, he is
Chayav, in spite of the fact that our Mishnah, which rules that someone who
writes two letters on two walls of a house , is Patur - if they cannot be
read together. This is because the letters on the walls of the house need
to be cut, before the two letters can be read, whereas the two letters
(which are written on two movable surfaces) only require bringing together
- but not cutting - and technically, bringing together is not considered as
if it was lacking an act (i.e. it is considered as if was already done).
Note: If the letters were written on the ground (and not on two movable
surfaces), he would be Patur.
(a) When the Beraisa writes 'Hegya Os Achas, Chayav' it means ...
1. ... according to Rav Sheshes - that a 'Ches' was written in a place
where the Sefer needed two 'Zayins' to be written consecutively; so all he
needed to do was to write the two missing letters by removing the top of
(b) The Beraisa (quoted in the previous question) which renders Chayav
someone who means to write one letter (a Ches), but inadvertently writes
two (Zayins), is Chayav, when they do not need Tagin (the little Zayins on
top of some of the letters). Consequently, he has written two Kasher
letters; whereas our Mishnah, which writes Patur, speaks when the letters
still require Tagin, and therefore, he will not be Chayav.
2. ... according to Rava - that he corrected one letter in a Sefer Torah,
making it Kasher - and he is Chayav because of Makeh ba'Patish.