ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem
Previous dafShabbos 103
(a) The Shiur for plowing and all related Melachos is a Kol Shehu.
(b) A Kol Shehu of plowed land is useful to sow in it a pumpkin-seed.
(c) Even though a person will take the trouble to sow *one* pumpkin-seed,
he will not, take the trouble to carry out less than *two* pumpkin seeds.
(a) Menachesh means weeding, Mekarsem, pruning, and Mezared, cutting away
excessive, new branches, which weaken the tree.
(b) The shiur for cutting ...
1. ... wood - in order to improve the tree is also a Kol Shehu; whereas, if
he just wants the wood for fuel, then the Shiur is sufficient to cook a
k'Gerogeres of a chicken's egg.
(c) The Shiur for detaching Ulshin or soft canes from the ground - for
eating, the Shiur is a k'Gerogeres; for his animals, a kid-goat's mouthful;
for fuel, sufficient to cook a k'Gerogeres of a chicken's egg; and to
improve the field, a 'Kol Shehu'.
2. ... grass - in order to improve the field, is also a 'Kol she'Hu'. But
if he wanted the grass for his animal, then the Shiur is the mouthful a
(d) One is not Chayav for improving the looks of a marsh, which nobody is
interested in improving or beautifying. Alternatively, one would be Patur
in the case of somebody else's field, which *he* is not interested in
improving (known as Pesik Reisha de'Lo Ichpas - or de'Lo Nicha - Lei).
(a) No! it makes no difference whether one writes with the right hand or
the left (this point stands to be qualified), the same letter or different
ones, with ink, dyes or paint, or in which language or script one writes -
one is always Chayav.
(b) According to Rebbi Yossi, one is Chayav even if he did not write any
letters at all, but just made two marks as a sign.
(c) His statement is based on the Mishkan, where they used to mark the
planks, in order that they should always be placed in the same position,
whenever the Levi'im re-erected the Mishkan.
(d) And when Rebbi Yehudah adds: 'Matzinu Shem Gadol mi'Shem Katan', he
means that, if someone intends to write Shimon, he is Chayav as soon as he
writes Shem (the first two letters of Shimon), since they form an
(a) Only someone who is ambidextrous is Chayav for writing with his
left-hand. A right-handed person is *not* - since it is considered
(b) Rav Ya'akov b'Rah de'Bas Shmuel establishes our Mishnah like Rebbi
Yossi. Consequently, even a left-handed person will be Chayav. Why is that?
Because even if writing with one's left-hand is not considered writing, it
is certainly called 'Roshem', which is the basis of Kosev, according to
(a) A 'Bayis Echad be'Nafah' - is one row of the Erev (the woof) of a
(b) After arranging the rows of the weft, one would normally first weave
one row at the top, and one at the bottom. Just one row will not hold.
Consequently, one is not Chayav for weaving just one row.
(c) We learn from '(me)'Achas' that the Melachah that he performed must be
(a) The Chidush of 'Sas' or 'Teis' is - that even if one meant to write a
larger word, such as Shashbetzer, and he only wrote 'Sas' - he is
(b) In our Mishnah, where Rebbi Yehudah requires two different letters, he
is stating his own opinion, whereas in the Beraisa, where he is Mechayev
even for writing the same letter twice, he is stating that of his Rebbe,
(c) Rebbi Yossi is Mechayev for making two markings on one plank, or even
for *one* marking, as long as it marks *two* planks.
(a) The Gemara suggests that the Rabbanan exempt someone who writes 'Alef,
Alef' from a Chatas, since it is not a word; whereas Rebbi Shimon is
Mechayev, because one does tend to write it in Kamei'os and for witchcraft.
(b) Rebbi Shimon holds that someone who intends to bore a large hole, plane
a plank, tan a skin or paint a picture is not Chayav for a Kol Shehu; he is
Chayav only if he performs the entire task on hand in one sitting. From
here we learn that Rebbi Shimon is more lenient than the Rabbanan in this
area of Melachos on Shabbos - not like we tried to say, in the previous
(c) True, Rebbi Shimon in the other Beraisa, learns from 'me'Achas' that
the entire *word* is not required in order to be Chayav on Shabbos, but we
amend this to 'the entire *Pasuk*' - he *does* require the entire *word*,
as we just explained.
(d) Rebbi Yossi and the Tana Kama (Rebbi Yehudah of our Mishnah) learn that
Shem mi'Shimon is Chayav from '*me*'Achas'.
(a) How can one be Chayav for writing Shem from Shimon, considering that
the Mem in Shimon is an 'open' one, whereas that of Shem is closed.
(b) Rebbi Yehudah ben Beseira learns that the Torah hints Nisuch ha'Mayim
in the words "ve'Niskeihe*m*" (on the second day of Succos),
"u'Nesach*e*ha" and "ke'Mishpata*m*" - which spell 'Mayim'. Now how can we
possibly learn Mayim from here, considering that the first 'Mem' is a
*closed* one, whereas the 'Mem' in Mayim is *open*? This teaches us that
according to Rebbi Yehudah ben Beseira, a Sefer-Torah is Kasher if one
exchanges an open Mem for a closed one - because just as over there, an
open 'Mem' which is written as a closed one is Kasher, the same will apply
to a closed 'Mem' which is open.
(c) But the Gemara queries this last statement on the grounds that whereas
an open 'Mem' that one 'closes', has been elevated in status (as we shall
soon see), vice-versa vice-versa actually reduces its sanctity. Why is
that? Because Rav Chisda has said 'Mem ve'Samech be'Nes Hayu Omdin' (which
the Gemara now understands to mean that those two letters appeared in the
Luchos *only* in the closed form? And as for the open letters, they are
purely mi'de'Rabbanan, as Rav Yirmiyah said ('Menaptzech Tzofim Amrum').
Consequently, we remain with the Kashya, how can Shem mi'Shimon be Kasher?
(d) The above interpretation (of 'Menaptzech Tzofim Amrum' and 'Mem
ve'Samech be'Nes Hayu Omdin'), cannot be correct, in light of Chazal, who
learn from the Pasuk "Eileh ha'Mitzvos" that not even a Navi is permitted
to add anything to the Mitzvos. Consequently, it is impossible to say that
even one letter was added by the Nevi'im. We are therefore forced to
explain 'Menatzpech, Tzofim Amrum' to mean that the open letters as well as
the closed ones appeared on the Luchos (so that they both have the same
sanctity), only they forgot which set appeared in the middle of the word
and which at the end. And what Rav Yirmiyah meant was not, that the Nevi'im
introduced the ordinary letters 'Menaptzech', but that they clarified that
those are the ones which have two connotations. As a result, the statement
that we made in b., is vindicated and correct.
(a) An 'Alef' which is confused with an 'Ayin' constitutes an error in
sound - since these two letters sound similar, even though they do not look
alike; while a 'Beis' and a 'Kaf' look alike, even though they do not sound
(b) 'Kefufin Peshutin, Peshutin Kefufin' - means bent letters that one
wrote straight, or vice-versa. The letters concerned are 'Kaf', Pey',
Tzadei' and 'Nun'.
(c) The Beraisa includes a Sefer-Torah that was not written in ink, or
where the names of Hashem were written in gold.