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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Shabbos 103



(a) The Shiur for plowing and all related Melachos is a Kol Shehu.

(b) A Kol Shehu of plowed land is useful to sow in it a pumpkin-seed.

(c) Even though a person will take the trouble to sow *one* pumpkin-seed, he will not, take the trouble to carry out less than *two* pumpkin seeds.

(a) Menachesh means weeding, Mekarsem, pruning, and Mezared, cutting away excessive, new branches, which weaken the tree.

(b) The shiur for cutting ...

1. ... wood - in order to improve the tree is also a Kol Shehu; whereas, if he just wants the wood for fuel, then the Shiur is sufficient to cook a k'Gerogeres of a chicken's egg.
2. ... grass - in order to improve the field, is also a 'Kol she'Hu'. But if he wanted the grass for his animal, then the Shiur is the mouthful a kid-goat.
(c) The Shiur for detaching Ulshin or soft canes from the ground - for eating, the Shiur is a k'Gerogeres; for his animals, a kid-goat's mouthful; for fuel, sufficient to cook a k'Gerogeres of a chicken's egg; and to improve the field, a 'Kol Shehu'.

(d) One is not Chayav for improving the looks of a marsh, which nobody is interested in improving or beautifying. Alternatively, one would be Patur in the case of somebody else's field, which *he* is not interested in improving (known as Pesik Reisha de'Lo Ichpas - or de'Lo Nicha - Lei).

(a) No! it makes no difference whether one writes with the right hand or the left (this point stands to be qualified), the same letter or different ones, with ink, dyes or paint, or in which language or script one writes - one is always Chayav.

(b) According to Rebbi Yossi, one is Chayav even if he did not write any letters at all, but just made two marks as a sign.

(c) His statement is based on the Mishkan, where they used to mark the planks, in order that they should always be placed in the same position, whenever the Levi'im re-erected the Mishkan.

(d) And when Rebbi Yehudah adds: 'Matzinu Shem Gadol mi'Shem Katan', he means that, if someone intends to write Shimon, he is Chayav as soon as he writes Shem (the first two letters of Shimon), since they form an independent word.

(a) Only someone who is ambidextrous is Chayav for writing with his left-hand. A right-handed person is *not* - since it is considered 'k'Le'achar Yad'.

(b) Rav Ya'akov b'Rah de'Bas Shmuel establishes our Mishnah like Rebbi Yossi. Consequently, even a left-handed person will be Chayav. Why is that? Because even if writing with one's left-hand is not considered writing, it is certainly called 'Roshem', which is the basis of Kosev, according to Rebbi Yossi.

(a) A 'Bayis Echad be'Nafah' - is one row of the Erev (the woof) of a wickerwork basket.

(b) After arranging the rows of the weft, one would normally first weave one row at the top, and one at the bottom. Just one row will not hold. Consequently, one is not Chayav for weaving just one row.

(c) We learn from '(me)'Achas' that the Melachah that he performed must be lasting.




(a) The Chidush of 'Sas' or 'Teis' is - that even if one meant to write a larger word, such as Shashbetzer, and he only wrote 'Sas' - he is nevertheless Chayav.

(b) In our Mishnah, where Rebbi Yehudah requires two different letters, he is stating his own opinion, whereas in the Beraisa, where he is Mechayev even for writing the same letter twice, he is stating that of his Rebbe, Rabban Gamliel.

(c) Rebbi Yossi is Mechayev for making two markings on one plank, or even for *one* marking, as long as it marks *two* planks.

(a) The Gemara suggests that the Rabbanan exempt someone who writes 'Alef, Alef' from a Chatas, since it is not a word; whereas Rebbi Shimon is Mechayev, because one does tend to write it in Kamei'os and for witchcraft.

(b) Rebbi Shimon holds that someone who intends to bore a large hole, plane a plank, tan a skin or paint a picture is not Chayav for a Kol Shehu; he is Chayav only if he performs the entire task on hand in one sitting. From here we learn that Rebbi Shimon is more lenient than the Rabbanan in this area of Melachos on Shabbos - not like we tried to say, in the previous answer.

(c) True, Rebbi Shimon in the other Beraisa, learns from 'me'Achas' that the entire *word* is not required in order to be Chayav on Shabbos, but we amend this to 'the entire *Pasuk*' - he *does* require the entire *word*, as we just explained.

(d) Rebbi Yossi and the Tana Kama (Rebbi Yehudah of our Mishnah) learn that Shem mi'Shimon is Chayav from '*me*'Achas'.

(a) How can one be Chayav for writing Shem from Shimon, considering that the Mem in Shimon is an 'open' one, whereas that of Shem is closed.

(b) Rebbi Yehudah ben Beseira learns that the Torah hints Nisuch ha'Mayim in the words "ve'Niskeihe*m*" (on the second day of Succos), "u'Nesach*e*ha" and "ke'Mishpata*m*" - which spell 'Mayim'. Now how can we possibly learn Mayim from here, considering that the first 'Mem' is a *closed* one, whereas the 'Mem' in Mayim is *open*? This teaches us that according to Rebbi Yehudah ben Beseira, a Sefer-Torah is Kasher if one exchanges an open Mem for a closed one - because just as over there, an open 'Mem' which is written as a closed one is Kasher, the same will apply to a closed 'Mem' which is open.

(c) But the Gemara queries this last statement on the grounds that whereas an open 'Mem' that one 'closes', has been elevated in status (as we shall soon see), vice-versa vice-versa actually reduces its sanctity. Why is that? Because Rav Chisda has said 'Mem ve'Samech be'Nes Hayu Omdin' (which the Gemara now understands to mean that those two letters appeared in the Luchos *only* in the closed form? And as for the open letters, they are purely mi'de'Rabbanan, as Rav Yirmiyah said ('Menaptzech Tzofim Amrum'). Consequently, we remain with the Kashya, how can Shem mi'Shimon be Kasher?

(d) The above interpretation (of 'Menaptzech Tzofim Amrum' and 'Mem ve'Samech be'Nes Hayu Omdin'), cannot be correct, in light of Chazal, who learn from the Pasuk "Eileh ha'Mitzvos" that not even a Navi is permitted to add anything to the Mitzvos. Consequently, it is impossible to say that even one letter was added by the Nevi'im. We are therefore forced to explain 'Menatzpech, Tzofim Amrum' to mean that the open letters as well as the closed ones appeared on the Luchos (so that they both have the same sanctity), only they forgot which set appeared in the middle of the word and which at the end. And what Rav Yirmiyah meant was not, that the Nevi'im introduced the ordinary letters 'Menaptzech', but that they clarified that those are the ones which have two connotations. As a result, the statement that we made in b., is vindicated and correct.

(a) An 'Alef' which is confused with an 'Ayin' constitutes an error in sound - since these two letters sound similar, even though they do not look alike; while a 'Beis' and a 'Kaf' look alike, even though they do not sound similar.

(b) 'Kefufin Peshutin, Peshutin Kefufin' - means bent letters that one wrote straight, or vice-versa. The letters concerned are 'Kaf', Pey', Tzadei' and 'Nun'.

(c) The Beraisa includes a Sefer-Torah that was not written in ink, or where the names of Hashem were written in gold.

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