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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Shabbos 99



(a) To try and fit three rows - totaling four and a half Amos - into a space of four and a half Amos (presumably, by four and a half Amos, the Gemara means slightly more, since it is impossible to fit four and a half Amos into a space of four and half Amos), it would mean squashing the planks, which were extremely large and difficult to maneuver. Consequently, it was necessary to make the wagons *five* Amos, to give the planks more room.

(b) Wagons one and a half Amos may well have sufficed to hold the planks. However, planks ten of Amos lying across a wagon only one and a half Amos wide, would have been too precariously balanced; so it what necessary to make the wagons *two* and a half Amos, rather than *one* and a half.

(a) Why is the width of the Reshus ha'Rabim given as *sixteen* Amos, since the two wagons plus the five Amah space in between, totaled only fifteen Amos, and not sixteen.

(b) The extra Amah concerned the Levi, who had to walk with the wagon to ensure that the planks remained steady.

(c) When gauging the Reshus ha'Rabim in the desert, we do not contend with the planks, since they were higher than ten Tefachim, and were therefore considered to be in a Makom Petur.

(a) A Chuli'as ha'Bor is a wall made of the initial contents of the pit - earth, rocks etc., which is piled up beside the pit.

(b) Yes! It had the Din of a Reshus ha'Yachid and one is Chayav for placing something from the street on top of it, or for taking from it to place in the street.

(c) The Mishnah mentions Chuli'as ha'Bor to teach us that if the pit is, for example five Tefachim, and the Chuli'ah, five they combine to make the inside of the pit a Reshus ha'Yachid.

(d) One is permitted to ...

1. ... draw water from a well in the Reshus ha'Rabim on Shabbos, only if one put up a wall of ten Tefachim.
2. ... to drink from the well directly on Shabbos, only if one leans both one's head and the majority of one's body before drinking.



(a) If someone throws an object from the street to land on a surface that is ten by four Tefachim, the article will have to have risen to above ten Tefachim in the Reshus ha'Rabim (a Makom Petur) before landing. Consequently, although the both the Akirah and the Hanachah were performed be'Chiyuv, perhaps the thrower is nevertheless Patur, since the article landed from a Makom Petur.
(See Tosfos, DH 'O', who stress that the Sha'aleh is confined to a case where the force of the thrower terminated before the article dropped to land on account of gravity, but not where it passed through the Makom Petur still propelled by the force of the thrower).

(b) The Amora'im tried to resolve the Sha'aleh from our Mishnah, which writes 'ha'Notel Mehen ve'ha'Nosen Al Gaban, Chayav', despite the fact that the article must have come down from above ten Tefachim (and despite the fact that the Mishnah seems to be speaking even in a case of throwing - Tosfos).

(c) According to Rav Mordechai, our Mishnah could well be speaking when there is a ledge or a crack in the rock or the wall surrounding the well which was below ten Tefachim, and that consequently, the thrown article could have dropped into it from below ten Tefachim.
The fact that the ledge was below ten Tefachim does not mean that they have the Din of a Makom Petur, since they are Batel to the surface of the rock, which is a Reshus ha'Yachid, and are called Chorei Reshus ha'Yachid.

(a) Rebbi Yochanan's Sha'aleh concerning someone who throws something on to a wall that helped turn a former Karmelis into a Reshus ha'Yachid - even though the wall itself is not four Tefachim thick is - whether, on the one hand, it is not four by four Tefachim, it is no more than a Makom Petur, or, will we say that, due to the fact that it turns the area inside it into a Reshus ha'Yachid, we consider the area inside as if it was filled in, meaning that the wall too, will be a Reshus ha'Yachid.

(b) Ula answers that, since the wall turns the area inside it into a Reshus ha'Yachid, then it certainly gives itself the Din of a Reshus ha'Yachid (because of the principle of 'Migu').

(a) If someone pulled up a clod of earth measuring one Tefach from a pit of nine Tefachim, will he be Chayav, asks Rebbi Yochanan, because the Akirah of the clod of earth and making the pit into a pit of ten Tefachim occur simultaneously, or perhaps, one is only Chayav if the Akirah is performed from a pit that is ten Tefachim to begin with.

(b) Assuming that he is Patur in the previous case, because the pit was not ten by ten Tefachim to begin with, then what will be the Din in the reverse case: if he places a clod of earth into a pit which is ten by ten Tefachim to begin with, but which now, after he has placed it, it no longer is; do we say that, since he placed into a pit that was ten by ten Tefachim to begin with, he will be Chayav, or perhaps, there too, he will Patur, since it is not ten by ten Tefachim as he concludes the Hanachah.

(c) Rebbi Yochanan explains that the Mishnah which rules that if someone throws something four Amos at a wall in a street below ten Tefachim, he is Chayav - must be speaking about where he throws something which sticks - such as a large cake of dried figs - which seems to be the same case as his Sha'aleh here.

(d) The reason that he is Chayav there, answers the Gemara, is because it speaks when he is not Mevatel the cake of figs; whereas in our case, Rebbi Yochanan is uncertain what the Din will be when he *is* Mevatel the object that he threw - which will therefore detract from the four Amos (which something that he is not Mevatel can*not* do).

7) Rava's Sha'aleh about throwing a board measuring four by four Tefachim, which landed on sticks ten Tefachim tall - does not concern the board, for which he is definitely Patur, but an object that is on the board when it is thrown: Is he
Patur, because he placed the article before the Reshus ha'Yachid was made.
Or is he Chayav, since inevitably, the article rose into the air before landing, which means that the Reshus ha'Yachid was made first, and then the article was placed.


(a) Someone who throws a dividing mat into a pit ten Tefachim deep and exactly eight Tefachim wide, is Patur, according to Abaye - because placing the mat detracts from the Shiur of four Tefachim (since there will now be two pits each one of less than four Tefachim) and Abaye holds that, when the Hanachah and the nullification of the wall occur simultaneously, one is Patur.

(b) If Abaye renders him Patur here (when one does not tend to nullify the mat), then he will certainly hold that he is Patur by the Sha'aleh of Rebbi Yochanan (in 6b), (where he probably nullified the clod of earth).

(c) Rebbi Yochanan is uncertain in the case of the clod of earth, because one nullifies it, whereas in our case (of the mat) he will certainly hold that the Hanachah is not Mevatel the Reshus ha'Yachid, and he will be Chayav.

(d) Someone who throws something into a pit which has the dimensions of a Reshus ha'Yachid, which contains ...

1. ... water - is Chayav, since water does not nullify the walls of a Reshus ha'Yachid
2. ... fruit - is Patur, because fruit *does* (Whether one needs to nullify the fruit, like we learnt on Daf 7b. regarding dried figs - see Tosfos DH 'Peiros'.)
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