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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Shabbos 90



(a) The Shiur for carrying soaked dyes on Shabbos is the amount that one would need to dye a sample for the dyer to show his customers.

(b) The Shiur for carrying out the raw materials for dye making is a larger one - as specified in our Mishnah - than the Shiur for carrying out the dyes themselves, because nobody would take the trouble to carry out such a small amount of raw materials (i.e. only enough to dye a small sample etc.)

(a) Urine is no longer fit to be used for washing clothes after forty days.


  1. Boris cannot possibly be sand, because the Beraisa lists both Boris and sand.
  2. Nor can Boris be sulfur, because Boris is listed among those items included in the Dinim of Shemitah, and Shemitah is confined to things that grow from the ground, and sulfur does not grow from the ground.
(c) Boris is a cleansing herb called Ohel.

(d) The Beraisa nevertheless lists Ohel as well Boris, because there are two kinds of Ohel, one of which is called Boris.

3) One obtains Shluf Dutz (also a cleansing herb) from the pearl inside which it grows, by making a hole in a pearl, and removing it with a pointed instrument.


(a) The Shiur for carrying out ...
  1. ... pepper-corns, tar, spices and metal on Shabbos - is a 'Kol she'Hu'.
  2. ... stones of the Mizbei'ach and dust from Sifrei-Torah and their mantles - is also a 'Kol she'Hu'.
(b) The reason that one is Chayav for the latter group is because one tends to put them away in order to place them in Genizah.

(c) Rebbi Yehudah learns from the Pasuk "ve'Lo Yidbak be'Yadcha *Me'umah* min ha'Cherem" - that even the smallest amount of Avodah Zarah is important, for which reason one is Chayav for carrying it out on Shabbos.


  1. One pepper-corn can be used to place in the mouth against bad smell.
  2. A small amount of tar is useful as an cure for when half the head aches.
(a) A Rei'ach Ra, is a sharp spice that one would burn, to produce smoke, to chase away the Demons; Argaman, the raw dye from which purple dye was made; and a Besulas ha'Vered, according to Rashi (see also marginal note in the Mesores ha'Shas) is one petal of a rose, which was used for its aroma.

(b) A small piece of metal was used to make the goad of a plow.

(c) Bedek ha'Bayis would use the Amah by Amah piece of iron for the Kalya Orev - a series of sharp metal plates, each one, an Amah by an Amah. These were fitted with nails, and used to cover the roof of the Beis Hamikdash, to prevent ravens from resting on the roof of the Beis Hamikdash and making it dirty.

(d) According to the Tana Kama, someone who made a vow to donate copper, would have to donate copper to the value of a silver Ma'ah (a small coin).

(e) The small fork that was made from the smallest donation of copper, according to Rebbi Eliezer, was used to trim and clean the wicks of the Menorah.

(a) Sefarim-dust is the edges of old Sefarim, that crumble with age and turn into dust;
The Techach of silk, the Ila of grapes, the Peh of figs and the Heh of pomegranates are all fruit-worms - and Mekek Sefarim is actually a worm too.

(b) When one of his Talmidim complained of thorns, in the figs that he was eating, Rebbi Yochanan exclaimed that Peh had killed him.




(a) A Kupas ha'Ruchlin is a peddler's box, containing a series of small boxes, each one with a different bundle of spice. For carrying out a Kupas ha'Ruchlin on Shabbos, one is Chayav only one Chatas.

(b) The Shiur for carrying out cucumber, pumpkin and Egyptian-bean seeds is just two seeds - despite the fact that the Shiur for other seeds is a little less than a Kigerogeres - because they are more Chashuv.

(c) According to Rebbi Yehudah ben Beseira, the Shiur for carrying out seeds is *five* seeds.
Note: The Shiur for carrying out seeds that are intended for *eating*, is a Kigerogeres.

(d) The Shiur for carrying out ...

1 ... a live Kasher locust - is a 'Kol Shehu';
2. ... a dead Kasher locust - is a Kigerogeres;
3. ... a live or dead Tzipores Keramim - is the amount that one would need to implement its curing properties'.
(e) A dead locust was fit only for eating, whereas they tended to designate live ones for the little children to play with.
(a) The Shiur for carrying out date-pits ,,,
1. ...for planting - is two pits;
2. ... for animal food - is enough to fill the mouth of a pig i.e. one pit.
(The dates in those days must have been very much larger than those of today.)
3. ... for fuel - enough to burn a Kigerogeres of a chicken's egg.
4. ... as counters (as a Si'man how many coins he is owed) - according to the Tana Kama, two.
(b) According to Rebbi Meir, five, because up to *four*, one tends to remember easily, and no Siman is required.

(c) The Shiur for carrying out ...

  1. ... hair from a horse's tail or from that of a cow - is two strands:
  2. ... hard fibers from a pig's spine - is one fiber;
  3. ... thick fiber from a date-palm - is two fibers;
  4. ... thin fiber from a date-palm - is just one fiber.
(d) The above are used ...
  1. ... for net-making;
  2. ... by leather makers in connection with the threads;
  3. ... to make baskets;
  4. ... to sew up pumpkins.
(a) The Tzipores Keramim is found in a young date-palm.

(b) It is used to open a stopped-up heart (i.e. someone lacking on knowledge, or who is stupid).

(c) After eating the right half of the bird, they would place the left half in a copper pipe, which they would seal with many seals. Then they would suspend it on his left arm.

(d) The Siman from the Pasuk "Lev Chacham li'Yemino, ve'*Lev Kesil li'Semolo*" is that here, where the cure is for a person whose heart (which is on the *left side*) is foolish, one ties it on the *left arm*.

(a) The Rabbanan maintain that one would not give a non-Kasher bird to a child to play with, in case the bird dies, and he eats it. Consequently, one would be Patur for carrying it out, because it has no Chashivus.

(b) Rebbi Yehudah maintains that, should the locust die, the child will cry over its demise, rather than eat it.

(c) If we are afraid that he might come to eat the *non-Kasher* locust whilst it is still alive, then why should we not also be afraid that he might come to eat even a *Kasher* locust whilst it is still alive - which is forbidden because of the La'av of "Bal Teshaktzu" (Kedoshim). In that case, one would even be Patur for carrying out a live *Kasher* locust!

(d) Even if one is not obligated to order a child to desist from performing an Isur (this has nothing to do with the Mitzvah of Chinuch, which, some say, is confined to Mitzvos Asei), it is nevertheless prohibited to put an Isur into his hand.

Hadran Alach 'Amar Rebbi Akiva'!

Perek ha'Matzni'a


(a) The moment one changes one's mind, and decides to use the object for the purpose for which it was initially designated, he will be Patur for carrying less than *that* Shiur. Consequently, if he takes the smaller Shiur (for which he *was* Chayav when he carried it *out*) and carries it back inside, he will be Patur.

(b) The Chidush of placing the commodity into storage is that even though he subsequently forgot why he put it away, he will nevertheless be Chayav when he carries out the smaller amount, because when someone does something absentmindedly, he does it with the intention that he originally had in mind. Consequently, since he placed the seed into storage for a new use, that is what he took it out of storage for, even though he did not recall that, whilst actually taking it out.

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