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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Shabbos 81



(a) The Shiur of ...
  1. ... a bone (according to the Tana Kama) - is one that is sufficiently large to carve a spoon in it.
  2. ... a piece of glass - is one with which one can sharpen the shuttle of the weaving loom.
  3. ... a rock or a stone - is one that is large enough to throw at a bird (according to the Tana Kama), or at an animal (according to Rebbi Eliezer ben Ya'akov).
(b) If the Shiur of a bone, according to Rebbi Yehudah, is large enough to manufacture a lock, then the Shiur of Rebbi Yehudah will be larger than that of the Tana Kama - and, we have already learned, a number of times, that in this area of Halachah, it is the Tana Kama whose Shiur is larger.

(c) To solve this problem, the Gemara establishes Rebbi Yehudah, not by an entire lock, but by one tooth of a lock.

(a) The teeth of a lock are Tahor, until one fits them into the lock. We are speaking of a lock that is attached to vessels - not one which is attached to a door, which is Tahor, because whatever is attached to ground is Tahor like the ground itself.

(b) The fact that the lock has a hole 'to receive' the teeth, gives it the Din of a receptacle, and wooden *receptacles* are subject to Tum'ah.

(c) The Beraisa gives the Shiur for glass as being - one that is able to split two hairs simultaneously.

(d) Glass is called 'Sechuchis' because one can see through it (from the word 'Socheh' - to see); and 'Zechuchis' because it is clear (from the word 'Zach' - clear).

(a) Chazal assess the weight of a stone or a rock that fot to throw at an animal with good effect as being ten Zuz.

(b) Zonin's Sha'aleh regarding stones for the bathroom, concerns both the Chiyuv for carrying them in the street, and whether one may pick them up in the Chatzer to take into the bathroom (because of Muktzah).

(c) The Gemara here rejects the idea of stones of three different weights, on the grounds that who is going to measure them?

(d) The Gemara rules that one is permitted to take a handful of stones - even if there are four or five of them.

(a) Rebbi Meir and Rebbi Yehudah also argue by an Esrog, whose minimum Shiur, according to Rebbi Meir, is the size of a walnut, and according to Rebbi Yehudah, that of an egg.

(b) A Payas is a clod of earth, which is not fit to use to clean oneself, because it tends to break up into pieces; therefore it is Muktzah.

(c) How can it be forbidden to use a rock to help one to open the bowels on Shabbos? Have we not learnt that someone who does not relieve himself when he needs to, will contract dropsy - Hence the Kashya, 'Listachen?'

(d) The handful is only permitted to take into a fixed bathroom, where he knows for sure that, even if some stones are not used on Friday night, they will nevertheless be used on Shabbos during the day; But if one is using a bathroom that is not fixed (in which case, stones that are not used, will have been carried for nothing), Chazal made a compromise and permitted only medium-size stones - namely, that of a walnut (see Mishnah Berurah 312:2).

(a) A small mortar is Muktzah because it is a 'Kli she'Melachto le'Isur' (see Korban Nesan'el 2:20, who proves that it is also 'Muktzah Machmas Chesaron Kis'). Consequently, if dirt still remains on it from a previous use, this is as if he had now designated it for that use, and renders it permitted.

(b) The remaining three things that cause piles are: someone who cleans himself with plaster, with broken pieces of earthenware, and someone who uses a rock which somebody else used.

(c) 'ha'Toleh Atzmo be'Veis ha'Kisei' means someone who relieves himself standing, rather than sitting.

(d) Rav Sheshes permits the small mortar with its sign of some excrement still on it, provided either 1. the excrement is dry; or 2. the sign is only on one side, but the other side is still clean or 3. when the excrement on the mortar is his own; whereas the Beraisa speaks about using the rock which contains someone else's excrement, and which is still wet. That is when it causes piles.

6) If the rain washes off the excrement, it is still permitted to use the rock, provided the mark is still visible, in which case, it remains disgusting and is unusable for its original function.




(a) The Gemara uses the principle 'Gadol Kavod ha'Beriyos, she'Docheh es Lo Sa'aseh she'ba'Torah' - to resolve the Sha'aleh whether one is permitted to take the stones up to the roof to use there, because maybe it is Asur because of excessive trouble. Clearly, this is permitted.

(b) We learn the principle from the Torah's concession for a dignified elder to refrain from returning a lost article if it would be undignified for him to do so.

(c) The Chachamim forbid picking up splinters to pick one's teeth (other than from a stable), because that is something which he should have done *before* Shabbos; whereas not everybody knows where he will relieve himself, making it difficult to prepare the stones in advance.

(a) Rav Huna's reason for forbidding relieving oneself in someone else's field, cannot be due to ...
1. ... monetary considerations, because if it was, he would have forbidden it during the week too, and not just on Shabbos!
2. ... Tolesh (with regard to the grass growing there), because Resh Lakish has specifically permitted using a rock, in spite of the grass growing on it, and in spite of the fact that, should one pull out some of the grass, he will be Chayav a Chatas.
(b) Rav Huna's reason is because he may inadvertently take a rock from higher ground, and put it down on lower ground - to fill a hile there - and, we have already learnt, that someone who does so is Chayav Chatas, because of 'Choresh'.

(c) The concession to pick up a rock is confined to using it to clean oneself, because of Kavod ha'Beri'os; but will not extend to picking up a plant-pot with a plant growing in it - when is not a matter of Kavod ha'Beriyos?

(d) Rashi quotes from the Teshuvas ha'Ge'onim that the Parfisa was a wickerwork basket, which they would fill with earth and manure, and in which they would then plant a legume-seed - some two or three weeks before Rosh ha'Shanah - one for each member of the family. Then, on Erev Rosh ha'Shanah, each person would take his basket, and revolve it around his head seven times, saying 'Zeh Tachas Zeh. Zeh Chalipasi, ve'Zeh Temurasi', after which he would take the basket and throw it into the river (an apparent combination - and probably the fore-runner of - both Kaparos and Tashlich).

(a) Someone who moves a holed plant-pot from the ground and places it on pegs (where it is still open to the ground), is Chayav because of 'Tolesh', since he has removed it from its source of growth. And the same will apply if he takes the pot from the pegs, where they do not nurture from the ground, and places it on the ground. (He is not actually Chayav in the usual sense of the word. Chayav here, means Asur mi'de'Rabbanan, as Rashi and Tosfos explain.)

(b) These Melachos resemble Tolesh and Notei'a.

(c) One should not use a piece of clay to clean oneself, because of the danger of tearing out the glands of the rectum, and because it is subject to witchcraft.

(d) Rebbi Yochanan needed to prohibit the use of clay on Shabbos, to teach us that when one has the choice of a piece of clay or rocks, one should use the rocks (even though they are Muktzah and the clay is not), due to the two reasons mentioned earlier - in c.

(a) We know that Rebbi Yochanan holds that 'Davar she'Ein Miskaven, Mutar', because Rebbi Yochanan always rules like a S'tam Mishnah, and there is a S'tam Mishnah in Nazir, which says 'Nazir Chofef u'Mefasfes' - despite the fact that he might pull out hairs - because the Tana holds 'Davar she'Ein Miskaven, Mutar'.

(b) The Roman matron cast a spell on the boat, in an attempt to stop the boat from moving. But Rav Chisda and Rabbah bar Rav Huna said a Name of Hashem (or uttered a counter-spell) and negated the spell.

(c) She ascribed their powers to counter her witchcraft to the fact that they avoided using: a piece of clay to clean themselves, killing a louse directly on their clothes and remove a garlic, leek or onion direct from a bundle of vegetables which had been tied by the gardeners - always taking care to untie it first.

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