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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Shabbos 78



(a) The Rabbanan gave the Shiur for wine and milk as the Shiur of drinking, and not as the Shiur that was needed for an eye-cure, they also tended to use a woman's milk or water for the eye-cure, with the result that most milk and wine was used for drinking, and not for the cure.

(b) Although honey was used both for eating and for rubbing on the animals' sore back, Chazal gave the *stricter* Shiur of the cure, rather than the more lenient Shiur for eating - as they always do with any commodity that has two uses.

(c) When it comes to water, surely the majority of water was used for drinking, and not as a cure. Why then, did they fix the Shiur by its use as a cure?

(d) The author of our Mishnah was from the Galil, where the people were poor, and would refrain from using wine and milk as an eye-cure, only water. Consequently, water was used for cures just as commonly as for drinking. Having established that, Chazal determined the Shiur by the stricter of the two uses, as we just explained.

(e) Rav answers that water is more commonly used as an eye-cure, even by those who do not live in the Galil, because, whereas other liquids are also effective as eye-cures, they also stick to the eye, creating a film and interfering with the eyesight, water, which is thinner, does not have this after-effect. Consequently, people usually prefer to use water than other liquids.

(a) 'Barkis' is a growth in the eye, and 'Ya'arod', a streak or white spots in the eye.

(b) The blood of a bat, which is found *inside* inhabited territory, is good for the Ya'arod, which afflicts the *inside* of the eye; whilst the blood of the wild hen, which lives *outside* inhabited territory, is good for the Barkis, which protrudes *outside* the eye.

(c) According to Rebbi Shimon, the Shiur for *all* liquids is a Revi'is.

(a) 'Aval be'Matzni'a, Kol Dehu' implies that he is Chayav for putting away even the smallest amount. But surely, he too, is not Chayav until he actually carries it out?

(b) The Talmid referred to by the Gemara is an apprentice, and the author is Rebbi Shimon ben Elazar (see Tosfos DH 'Atu'). What the Beraisa means is this: when do we go after the intrinsic Chashivus of the article (the Shiurim given by Chazal), that is by an article which was *not* put away; but by an article that *was*, whoever carries it out will be Chayav. because of the designation of the first person.

(c) Shofchin is useful in the manufacture of clay or cement.

(d) The Shiur for cement which has already been mixed, is sufficient to punch a hole in it for the opening of a furnace. But nobody would take the trouble to mix such a small amount of cement. Therefore the amount of sewage-water is the amount that one would carry out to mix cement.

(a) The smallest Shiur for ...
  1. ... a cord is - the size that one would use to tie to a box, to use as a handle.
  2. ... a reed - is the size that one would attach to a sieve,by which to hang it up.
  3. . ... unused paper - is a piece large enough to write on it the receipt that the toll-inspector would hand to whoever had paid.
  4. ... paper that has been written - is the amount that one would use as a small bottle-stopper.
(b) Yes! One *is* Chayav for carrying out a toll-chief's receipt.

(c) Two large letters were written on it.

(d) The smallest size piece of hide for which one is Chayav, is a piece which is large enough to write a Kemei'a.




(a) Klaf is the top layer of hide (which has been spliced); the minimum Shiur regarding Shabbos is a piece on which one was able to write the smallest Parshah of the Tefilin i.e. that of the Shema.

(c) The minimum Shiur for ...

  1. ... ink - is sufficient to write two letters (of the alphabet) with it.
  2. ... eye-paint - is enough to paint one eye.
  3. ... glue - is to cover the surface of a bird-trap.
  4. ... pitch and sulfur - is small enough to make a cover for a vessel in which raw silver is kept, and to punch a small hole in it.
  5. ... wax - is to stop up that hole.
  6. ... fine bran - is the amount that is needed to use in a furnace for
  7. smelting gold instead of coal.
(d) According to Rebbi Yehudah, the Shiur for ground brick is to make a leg (apparently the leg of a furnace - as we shall see in the Gemara).
(a) A cord is not suitable to use as a hook to for a sieve, because the notches in the cord will spoil the wood of the sieve.

(b) The Shiur for ...

1. ... the long and thin foliage of the palm-branches - is to make a handle for a wickerwork basket.
2. ... the fiber that grows around the palm-tree - is the amount that one would place on a funnel to strain wine.
3. ... fat - is the amount that one place underneath a small sponge-cake which one is baking in the oven.
(c) This Shiur is the equivalent of a Sela-coin, which in turn, the same Shiur as a Kigerogeres'

(d) The Shiur of a wad of cotton-wool etc. - is sufficient to make a small ball.

(a) The receipt of the toll-inspector does not require a margin, since one tends to hold it in the palm of one's hand.

(b) Rava explains the Beraisa, which gives the Shiur of plain paper as two letters, to mean two letters plus the margin - with which to hold it - (the equivalent of two letters of a Kesher Muchsin).

(c) The paper in this Beraisa, on which one has already written, does not require a margin in addition to the unwritten space on it, so how can Rava understand 'two letters' to mean two ordinary letters?
(This Kashya remains unanswered.)

(d) The Shiur of used paper which has no blank space on it , is if it is large enough to use as a small-bottle stopper.

(a) According to the Tana Kama, if someone carries out a Kesher Muchsin which he has already shown to the toll-collector, he is Patur.


1. 'Rehitei Muchsin' means the toll-inspectors, who search for people who cross the river without paying the toll. So one needs to retain the Kesher Muchsin, to prove that one has paid. (According to the Tana Kama, most people will not retain their receipts on account of the inspectors, since they can always return to the toll-collector, to verify that they have paid.)
2. A Moches Gadol is the senior toll-man, who sometimes appoints a junior to stand at his post - he is called a Moches Katan. The person who is crossing may well have shown his receipt to the Moches Gadol, however, the Moches Katan is still liable to stop him from crossing. (According to the Tana Kama, people will not retain their receipts on account of the Moches Katan either, because the Moches Gadol tends to inform the Moches Katan who has paid, and to give him a Si'man.)
3. Chad Moches means, that even if we are only talking about one Moches, Rebbi Yehudah still maintains that people need their receipt, to show to a newly-appointed toll-man that they pay their toll, and can be trusted.
(a) Rav Yosef uses the Pasuk "Al Tashken be'Ohalecha Avla" to explain why the Tan Kama says that one is Patur for carrying out a paid document: The Pasuk means that one is not permitted to keep a false document (including one which has already been paid) in the house. Consequently, the creditor will not retain a paid document (even to use as a bottle-stopper); and the debtor will certainly not want to keep it, in case it somehow falls into the hands of the creditor. Therefore, the only thing to do with a paid document is to destroy it.

(b) Rebbi Yehudah presumably, explains the Pasuk to mean that one may not keep the document intact, but it is permitted to roll it up and use it as a bottle-stopper. Consequently, the creditor still has a use for it, and will be Chayav if he carries it in the street.

(c) The debtor will not be Chayav, because he will be afraid risk keeping it. So he will not be Chayav for carrying it out.

(a) The Tana Kama holds that even if the debtor admits that he wrote the document (i.e. that the loan took place), he is nevertheless believed to say that the debt has already been paid; in fact, as long as he does admit to not having paid, the document is useless to the creditor - 'That he paid' - in the Beraisa means, not that he actually paid, but that he claimed that he had not paid.
Consequently, the document is useless, as in the previous answer. Rebbi Yehudah holds that, once the borrower admits that he borrowed the money, he cannot invalidate the document by claiming that he has paid. Consequently, the creditor needs it to claim his debt, and will be Chayav, as we explained in the previous answer.

(b) According to Rava, Rebbi Yehudah holds that he is Chayav, because, in his opinion, one does not write a receipt (since that would require the debtor to guard it from mice. Consequently, the creditor needs the document, to return it to the debtor (nor will he be Patur because it is a 'Melachah she'Einah Tzerichah le'Gufah', since Rebbi Yehudah holds that for a 'Melachah she'Einah Tzerichah le'Gufah' one is Chayav).

(c) According to Rav Ashi, it is the borrower who is under dispute; Rebbi Yehudah holds that he is Chayav, because (like Rav Ashi himself explained with regard to the Moches) he wants to retain the receipt - as a self-recommendation, to show future potential creditors that he pays his debts.

(d) The other Amora'im maintain that the debtor is more concerned with destroying the document, to ensure that the creditor does not re-claim the debt, than he is about possible future debts.

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