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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Shabbos 77



(a) Rava proves from our Mishnah, which writes 'ha'Motzi Yayin, Kedei Mezigas Kos', the Beraisa (which adds) 'Kedei Mezigas Kos Yafeh', and the Seifa 've'She'ar Kol ha'Mashkin, bi'Revi'is - that the Shiur of 'Kedei Mezigas Kos' (in our Mishnah) means a quarter of a Revi'is ha'Lug. Because we see from the Seifa of the Mishnah ('ve'She'ar Kol ha'Mashkin') etc., that less than the Shiur of a Revi'is is not Chashuv, when it comes to drinking. And Rava follows his own reasoning - since he holds that ideally, wine needs to be diluted to the ratio of three parts water to one part wine.

(b) The Rova Revi'is in our Sugya cannot possibly mean a quarter of a Lug, which will become a Lug after water has been added, because the Gemara in Nazir includes this case in the ten Revi'ios listed there - and those Revi'ios are all a Revi'is ha'Lug.

(c) The Mishnah in Nidah, describing one of the appearances of Dam Nidah ('Mazug'), writes ve'ha'Mazug, Sh'nei Chelkei Mayim, ve'Echad Yayin, min ha'Yayin ha'Sheroni'. So it appears that one dilutes wine by adding *two* partswater to one part wine, and not *three*, as Rava claims?

(d) And besides, he asks, how can Rava gauge the wine by how much water one would add to render it drinkable? For, when all's said and done, the water has not yet been added, so the wine as it is, is not drinkable? It must be, Abaye therefore maintains, that the quarter of a Revi'is is Chashuv in its own right, because that is what the Chachamim determined.

(a) Firstly, Rava counters, how can Abaye query him from the Mishnah in Nidah, which specifically mentions Yayin *ha'Sheroni*? Perhaps ordinary wine is different?
And besides, the Mishnah there is talking about diluting the wine to give it *the appearance* of Dam Nidah! Who's talking about taste? Perhaps for tasting, wine requires *three* parts water to one part wine, just as Rava contends!

(b) And as far as Abaye's second Kashya is concerned, Chazal determine the Shiurim by the importance of each individual object. Wine is gauged by its drinking value, not necessarily because that is how it is drunk *now*, but because that is the amount that someone would carry, with the intention of adding water later?

(a) According to Rebbi Nasan, one would be Chayav for carrying out a Kezayis of congealed wine.

(b) 'Dam Neveilah, Beis Shamai Metaharin' - means that the blood of Neveilah is not Metamei Tum'as Neveilah i.e. it is *not* Metamei a person, but it *is* Metamei Tum'ah Kalah i.e. food and drink (like food is).

(c) Rebbi Yossi b'Rebbi Yehudah holds that Beis Hillel only renders Dam Neveilah Tamei, when it comprises a Revi'is, because, if one congeals a Revi'is of blood, it becomes a Kezayis, which is the Shiur for Tum'as Neveilah.

(d) Abaye argues that according to Rebbi Nasan, it is a congealed Revi'is of *wine* that becomes a Kezayis, but blood, which is thicker, will not require a Revi'is to become a Kezayis.
And Rebbi Yossi b'Rebbi Yehudah, who maintains that a Revi'is of congealed *blood* becomes a Kezayis, will hold, that when it comes to *wine*, it will require more than a Revi'is to become a Kezayis after it has congealed.

4) The Gemara proves from ...
1. ... "Hagmi'ini Na" etc. - that the word 'Gemi'a' is spelt with an 'Aleph' and not with an 'Ayin'.
2. ... "ve'Nigra me'Erkecha" - that 'Gar'inin' (which are taken away from the fruit) is spelt with an 'Ayin' and not with an 'Aleph'.
3. ... "Arazim Lo Amemuhu" - that 'Omemos' is spelt with an 'Ayin' and not with an 'Aleph'.
4. ... "ve'Otzem Einav me'Re'os be'Ra" - that 'Me'amtzin' is spelt with an Ayin and not with an 'Aleph'.


5) When the Mishnah gives the Shiur of honey as enough to place on a wound, it either means on the entire surface of the wound, or only on its upper tip (for example, on the tip of a boil).


(a) Hashem created ...
1. ... the snail - to place on a wound (like we just learnt by honey).
2. ... the fly - as an antidote to a hornet-sting.
3. ... the gnat - as an antidote for snake-bite.
4. ... the snake - as a cure for a type of boils.
5. ... the spider - as an antidote for the bite of a scorpion.
1. A scorpion is afraid of spiders;
2. an eagle, of swallows;
3. the Livyasan, of sticklebacks.
(c) We learn this wonder of the creation from the Pasuk "ha'Mavlig Shod Al Az" - that sometimes Hashem places the power in the hands of the weak, to place their fear into the hearts of those who many times stronger stronger than they.
1. It is the goats that go at the head of the flock, because they are generally black (and the sheep, white), and like Hashem created the world, darkness comes before light ("Veyehi Erev, Vayehi Voker" etc.)
2. Sheep provide us with wool - therefore their private parts are covered, whereas goats do not.
3. The camel's tail is short, because it eats thorns, and if it had a long tail, it would get scratched by the thorns. The cow, on the other hand, has a long tail, in order to swat the flies, which abound in the meadow - where it lives.
4. The grasshoppers' antenna are soft, because it lives among the willows, which would break them, if they were hard.
5. The chicken is the only creature whose lower eyelids close upwards - to cover the upper one. This is because it lives among the boards, whose dust would blind it if the upper eyelids would close over the lower ones, like they do by other creatures.
1. Dasha (a gate) - is short for 'Derech Sham'.
2. Darga (a ladder) - for 'Derech Gag'.
3. Maskulisa (a sharp condiment) - for 'Masai Tichleh Da' (when will this finish)?
4. Beisa (a house) - for 'Ba ve'Eisiv Bah'.
5. Biksa (a tiny house) - for 'Bei Aksa'.
1. Kufsa (a large block of wood) - is short for 'Kof ve'Siv'.
2. Livni (bricks) - for 'li'V'nei Be'ni'.
3. Hutza (a reed fence) - for 'Chatzitzah' (because that's all it is).
4. Chatzva (a small barrel) - for 'she'Chotzev' (Bah Mayim min ha'Nahar).
5. Kuza (a small earthenware jar) - for 'ka'Zeh'.
1. Shutisa (a myrtle-twig) - is short for 'Shetusa' (because they used to dance with it in front of the Kalah, making actions like fools).
2. Mashichla (a large water-bowl) - for 'Mashi (wash) Kula'.
3. Mashchilta (a small dainty water-bowl) - for 'Mashya Kalsa'.
4. Asisa (a mortar) - for 'Chaserta' (because it lacks carving).
5. Buchna (a pestle) - for 'Bo ve'Akena'.
1. Levusha (a top garment) is short for 'Lo Bushah'(because it covered the undergarments, which were roughly made).
2. Gelima (a plain over-coat) - for 'ke'Golem'.
3. Gulsa (a smart coat) - for 'Gali ve'Siv' (because one pulls it up, uncovering oneself in the process, so that it should not get spoiled by sitting on it).
4. Purya (a bed) - for 'Parin ve'Ravin Alei'.
5. Bor Zinka (a water-pit which has dried up) - for 'Bor Zeh Naki' (empty).
1. Sudra (a head-scarf worn by Talmidei Chachamim) - for 'Sod Hashem li'Yerei'av'.
2. Apadna (a king's palace) - for 'a'Pischa Dein' (everyone comes in here).
(a) A fish, a snake and a pig become stronger as they get older.

(b) A small limb - the Shiur for carrying out oil - means the smallest limb of a new-born baby.

(c) The Gemara initially thought that when the Beraisa gave the Shiur for oil as 'Lasuch Ever Katan, ve'Katan ben Yomo', it meant either the small limb of a grown-up, or the large one of a baby.

(d) But the Gemara concludes that the Beraisa, in fact, is giving only *one* case, not *two* - the small limb of a small child (changing the 'Vav' of 've'Katan' into 'Shel').

(a) In fact, the Gemara concludes, both Rebbi Shimon ben Elazar and Rebbi Nasan may well disagree with de'Bei Rebbi Yanai. Rebbi Shimon ben Elazar holds like we thought to learn the Beraisa above (in 9c) - namely, that the Shiur of oil is the amount that one would need to anoint the small limb of a grown-up which is the equivalent to that of the large limb of a baby; whereas Rebbi Nasan maintains that the two are not similar, and that the Shiur for oil is the former, and not the latter.

(b) The Gemara vindicates de'Bei Rebbi Yanai, because of a Beraisa, which writes explicitly that Rebbi Shimon ben Elazar gives the Shiur as 'Kedei Lasuch Ever Katan shel Katan ben Yomo'.

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