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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Shabbos 75



(a) Someone who pulls the loose end of a strand on Shabbos, thereby adjusting the garment, is Chayav because of Tefirah.

(b) Rav says that someone who learns from a Magush is Chayav Misah.

(c) According to Rav, a Magush is a heretic who also draws others to idolatry.

(d) A Magush can also be a sorcerer. But that must be the opinion of Shmuel, not of Rav. Why?
Because Chazal derive from the Pasuk in Parshas Shoftim "Lo Silmad La'asos", that although it is forbidden to learn sorcery to practice it, it is permitted to learn it in order to deal with it in Beis-Din. Now Rav's source for declaring a Magush Chayav Misah is from the Pasuk in Parshas Shoftim. And it is unlikely that the Torah would have gone on to permit the Chachamim to learn sorcery, had there been a Chiyuv Misah attached to it.

(a) Yeshayah writes "ve'Es Po'al Yadav Lo Yabitu" etc., about somebody who has the knowledge to work out the Tekufos (of the sun) and the Mazalos, to be able to foretell, for example, whether the year will be rainy or sunny.

(b) We learn from the Pasuk "u'Shemartem ve'Asisem ... le'Einei ha'Amim", that it is a Mitzvah to work out the Tekufos and the Mazalos.

(c) "le'Einei ha'Amim" indicates that this Chochmah shows up the Chochmah of Yisrael in the eyes of the nations of the world, when their predictions come true.
This is a Kidush Hashem, and seems to be the reason why Chazal refer to it as a Mitzvah.

(d) Rav says that one may not speak to someone who fails to put this knowledge into practice.

(a) According to the Tana Kama, Dishah is confined to things that grow from the ground, and is therefore not applicable to fish.

(b) Rava maintains that, someone who squeezes the fish for its blood, is not Chayav for taking the fish's life, because he is only Mis'asek - a form of Ones, since he does not really intend to kill it.

(c) Rava calls this a Mis'asek because he really wants the fish to live as long as possible (this is known as a Pesik Reisha de'lo Nicha Lei - that he does not want, as opposed to one to which he is indifferent). That is why he is not Chayav (it is Mutar, according to the Aruch, and Patur according to Tosfos - see DH 'Mis'asek).

(a) According to Rav, Shechitah also involves Tzovei'a - dyeing.

(b) The blood-red neck is useful for commercial purposes, because it attracts buyers.




(a) The Gemara replaces either Molei'ach or Me'abed with 'Sirtut' - marking the skin for cutting.

(b) Rav Ashi explains that when Rabah bar Rav Huna ruled that one is Chayav for salting meat, he was referring exclusively to someone who salts it to take with him on a long journey, but not to someone who salts it at home. Why is this?
Because one does not usually salt meat so well as to turn it into a piece of wood (except when traveling), and salting just for eating is not called Molei'ach -

(c) According to Rava, Melichah does apply to food - though this does not necessarily mean that it is permitted (see Tosfos DH 'Ein').

(d) 'ha'Shaf Bein ha'Amudim' means that someone smoothens the ground between the pillars of the porch, in order to make it smooth.

(a) 'Megarer Roshei Kelunsa'os' means sharpening the tips of poles. The Melachah is Mechatech.

(b) If, on Shabbos, someone ...

1. ... rubbed a dressing on a wound, he would be Chayav for Memare'ach.
2. ... smoothened a stone, 3. carved a picture on a vessel which was intended to have a picture on it, 4. blew a glass vessel or 5. removed excess strands from curtains or from a garment, he would be Chayav Makeh ba'Patish.
(c) However, he would only be Chayav for the removal of the strands in the latter case, if he was fussy not to use it or to wear it, the way it was.
(a) One is Chayav ...
  1. ... only if one writes *two* letters (of the alphabet), not *one* however large it is.
  2. ... for erasing one large letter, leaving a space large enough to write two.
(b) The difference is that writing is in itself, a Melachah with a minimum Shiur of two letters; whereas erasing, which is a Kilkul, is only Chayav inasmuch as it prepares the space to write - and writing, as we have already pointed out, has a Shiur of two letters.
(a) 'Eilu Avos Melachos' comes to teach us that however many Melachos one performs, the maximum number of Chata'os will be thirty-nine, since one is never Chayav for performing a Toldah once one is Chayav for its Av. This comes to preclude the opinion of Rebbi Eliezer, in whose opinion one *is* Chayav for performing a Toldah even if one performed it together with its Av.

(b) 'Shovet' means the arranging of the threads of the warp onto the reel of the spinning-loom.
And 'Medekdek', hitting the threads of the woof as one stretches them, to prevent them from becoming too taught.

(c) The Rabbanan did not include these among the Avos Melachos, because, in their opinion, Shovet is included in 'Meisach', and Medakdek, in 'Oreg'.

(a) According to Mar Ukva, the K'lal comes to exclude the wood of an Asheirah.

(b) Mar Ukva holds that Dam Nidah also has a Shiur, because one tends to put it away for one's cat (it appears that, in those days, even Israelis kept cats). In Rav Papa's opinion, one would not feed Dam Nidah to a cat, because it causes the cat to become weak.

(c) Rebbi Shimon holds that it is only the person who preserves the article who is Chayav for carrying it out, but not others (such as rich people), who would throw it away - even if the article is the sort of article that some people (such as poor people) would retain. (According the Tana of our Mishnah, once a poor man preserves an article *that is fit for use*, then even a rich man will be Chayav for carrying it out.

(d) According to Rebbi Shimon ben Elazar, if one man preserves an article, even if it is *not normally fit for use*, then anyone who carries it out will be Chayav due to the thoughts of the owner.

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